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Scientific Studies


Updated January 4, 2017.

Since our original lawsuit filing in 2001, there has been a dramatic increase in C8/PFOA research based upon concerns about the undeniable adverse impact that perfluorooctanoic acid (C-8) may have upon life forms that exist on this planet. As Counsel for the Class Members, we have attempted to categorize the most important studies with regard to its statistical significance, the nature of C8 association with regard to possible health effects, and identification of the population which was studied. This indexing was prepared based upon information available to us, but should not be substituted for actual review of each individual document. These documents should be obtained from their original publisher– non copyrighted studies will be added to this site in the future.

To search for relevant studies based upon date of publication, click < here>.

To search for relevant studies based upon endpoint (subject matter and/or conclusions reached), click < here>.

To view studies finding links between PFOA exposure and adverse human health effects, click < here>


The original C-8 Class Action Attorneys who have participated since 2001 are:


Additional Information About Selected C8 Studies

Supplementing the C-8 Scientific Study lists above, some of the relevant studies prior to 2012 from the linked lists above are further summarized and listed below:

EPA Should Improve Implementation of Requirements on Whether to Regulate Additional Contaminants (US Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, May 2011)

EPA is preparing a third edition of America’s Children and the Environment (ACE3)

Currently in draft form, ACE3 reviews the current status of biomonitoring of perfluorochemicals. It will address concerns such as PFOA (C8) exposure of children through both food contamination and indoor environments. A significant amount of review concerns adverse birth outcomes resulting from prenatal exposure to PFOA

Endocrine Disrupting Properties of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, March 11, 2011)

“PFOA is a known developmental toxicant. . . .The mechanism by which PFOA causes health effects in various tissues or organ systems is the subject of on-going research.”

Impact of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Human Peripheral Leukocytes (Toxicology in Vitro, March 7, 2011)

Probable impact of PFOA (C8) exposure upon human immune defenses.

Implications of Early Menopause in Women Exposed to Perfluorocarbons (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, March 16, 2011)

This study of volunteer participants from the C8 Health Project concludes that the data suggest that PFC are associated with endocrine disruption in women and that further research on mechanisms is warranted.

C8 May Affect Liver at Low Levels (Reuters Health)

Reuters Health reports, “A new study suggests that a synthetic chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment and in people’s blood may affect the liver — though the significance for human health remains unclear.” The new study, first reported online in the American Journal of Gastroenterology December 15, 2009, was conducted by the National Taiwan University College of Public Health in Taipei, using data from a US government health study.

The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants (Environmental Health Perspectives, July 13, 2009)

This is the first published article providing a comprehensive description of the C8 Health Project. The article is very well written, quite detailed, and most informative for such a compact paper. Protocols and methods of the Brookmar Health Project are reviewed by a consortium of authors (corresponding author is Stephanie Frisbee). The C8 Health Project data was acquired through the work of an independent Brookmar team of health professionals compiled by A. Paul Brooks, MD and Arthur A. Maher MHA, with assistance of project manager Patsy Flensborg, BA and records manager Susan Arnold, MPA. Transfer of the Brookmar project data to a computerized database was implemented by information technology specialist Troy Young and his staff at CPR Solutions Group. Data integrity/confidentiality issues, compilation, summaries, and scientific analysis were conducted under the direction of Alan Ducatman MD, MSc, Professor and Chair of the Department of Community Medicine (West Virginia University School of Medicine) and his project team with substantial participation and efforts of WVU Department of Community Medicine research instructor Stephanie Frisbee, MSc.

One point relevant to scientific observers is that on page 18 the authors describe “A mechanism is currently being sought wherein an agency, likely of the federal government, would maintain and make it accessible a de-identified dataset for public research use.” That statement may be subject to misinterpretation if it gives the inference that the planned “mechanism” may be the only avenue for access to the de-identified raw data. Interested scientists should be advised that there is provision for access to the de-identified data by any credible institution, agency, or researchers if the judge is satisfied that the proposed research serves a valid purpose. The procedure and guidelines for such access are outlined beginning with the last paragraph on page three of the Order filing the data.

Predictors of PFOA Levels in a Community Surrounding a Chemical Plant (Environmental Health Perspectives, July 2009)

This is the first publication of a news or scientific article based upon information derived from the Brookmar C8 Health Project. In the article, protocols and tabulated results from the Brookmar Health Project are reviewed by a consortium of authors.

Dupont C8 violations reported to EPA March 6, 2001

In a letter demanding action from the Environmental Protection Agency, attorney Rob Bilott details the history of PFOA (C8) water contamination and its risks. Included are description of Dupont’s alleged violations of the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”) and Clean Water Act (“CWA’), as well as allegations of imminent and substantial endangerment to health or the environment under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”). Also noted in the letter is Dupont’s suspicious practice of intentionally referring to the implicated chemical in conflicting and inconsistent ways (Dupont used different names for the same chemical), which made it difficult for government agencies to understand how the information interrelated.

Environmental Working Group Comprehensive Report on PFCs

EWG analysts Olga V. Naidenko, PhD and Renee Sharp author a comprehensive report about PFOA (C8) and industry’s proposed replacement chemical PFHxA (C6). In the report Naidenko and Sharp review well documented concerns regarding the health risks of C8, and also question whether or not an industry switch to C6 will reduce risk to the environment and the public. The EWG report also points out the credibility gap between Dupont’s claim (“PFOA does not harm human health or the environment”) and the actual science that Dupont’s claims purport to dispute, including quotes from Dupont’s own Epidemiology Review Board (“The claim of no health effects is not supported by available facts . . .”).

Dupont reports “Confirmed and potential carcinoid tumor cases in the Dupont cancer registry”

Dupont’s reports about cancer at the Washington Works Plant were filed with the EPA on December 7, 2007 (not found on EPA’s updated TSCA 8(e) docket by this law firm until June 2008). These filings were the subject of an article by Ken Ward in the Charleston Gazette on June 8, 2008.

Public Comments to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding PFOA as a Drinking Water Contaminant

The attached Public Comments to the EPA were on file with that agency effective May 27, 2008. Included are comments by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection regarding the scientific basis for its 2007 0.04 ug/L PFOA drinking water guidance. Also included is a letter in support of PFOA regulation submitted by Minnesota State Senator Katie Sieben and a detailed analysis of the hazards of PFOA submitted by Olga V. Naidenko, PhD, (Senior Scientist at Environmental Working Group). In addition, the New Jersey Environmental Federation, the United Steel Workers, and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Health and Environment Program submitted documents in support of regulating PFOA. Lastly, 3M submitted comments contending that the EPA had not used the most relevant information to characterize PFOA’s potential human health effects and exposure levels.

PFOA-Obesity Link Research Released (European Congress on Obesity, 5/14/08)

In an experiment outlined at the conference of the European Congress on Obesity, Suzanne Fenton, a research biologist at the US Environmental Protection Agency, found that when PFOA was given to pregnant mice, their offspring were unusually small at birth then became overweight as adults.

WVU School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine C8 Health Project Webcast (5/7/08)

During this webcast, WVU Research Instructor Stephanie Frisbee, MSc, describes the Brookmar C8 Health Project and some preliminary observations regarding possible associations between C8 and human health. Research is ongoing and conclusions are not final. To access the presentation, click on the title above, then go to the May 7, 2008 presentation entitled “The C8 Health Project: How a Class Action Lawsuit Can Interact with Public Health – History and Events”.

WVU School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine C8 Health Project Webcast (Presentation Slides)

This link provides access to the slides referenced by WVU Research Instructor Stephanie Frisbee, MSc, during webcast regarding the Brookmar C8 Health Project and preliminary observations regarding possible associations between C8 and human health.

PFOA Days II Abstract (June 3-4, 2008)

The Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), are persistent environmental pollutants that are of considerable interest to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as the public. This workshop brought together scientists and interested parties from around the globe to exchange perspectives, and to review current research progress, share recent discoveries, address current issues, and chart the future course for PFAA research at the US EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD).

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