STUDIES FINDING LINKS BETWEEN PFOA EXPOSURE AND ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS

DATE

PUBLICATION

SPONSOR

POPULATION STUDIED

ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECT FOUND

I. LIPIDS

12/22/78

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of metabolic disorders

1996

Gilliland, F.D. & Mandel, J.S., "Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Hepatic Enzymes, Lipoproteins, and Cholesterol: A Study of Occupationally Exposed Men," 29 Amer. J. Indus. Med. 560-68 (1996)

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Altered HDL dependant on alcohol & obesity levels

2000

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Plasma Cholecystokinin and Hepatic Enzymes, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production Workers," 23 Drug & Chem. Toxicol. (4) 603-20 (2000)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased CCK

3/03

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Epidemiologic Assessment of Worker Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Concentrations and Medical Surveillance Examinations," 45 J.O.E.M. (3) 260-70 (March 2003)

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased triglycerides

Increased cholesterol

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- disorders of lipid metabolism

- cholelithiasis

9/7/04

MIC Letter to USEPA Regarding Mitini Meeting Data

Mitini (Italy)

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

1/10/05

DuPont Press Releases/Slides Regarding First-Phase Worker Health Study Results Examining PFOA Exposure

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

8/06

Emmett, E.A., et al., "Community Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Levels and Certain Health Parameters," 48 J.O.E.M. (8) 771-779 (Aug. 2006)

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased cholesterol

6/07

Olsen, G.W. & Zobel, L.R., "Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical workers," Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health (doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0213-0) (on-line 6/07)

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased HDL

Increased triglycerides

8/07

Sakr, C.J., et al., "Longitudinal Study of Serum Lipids and Liver Enzymes in Workers With Occupational Exposure to Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate," 49 J.O.E.M. (8) 872-79 (Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

10/07

Sakr, C.J., et al., "Cross-Sectional Study of Lipids and Liver Enzymes Related to a Serum Biomarker of Exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as Part of a General Health Survey in a Cohort of Occupationally Exposed Workers," 49 J.O.E.M. (10) 1086-96 (Oct. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased VLDL

2008

WVU Slides From On-Line Presentation

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased total cholesterol-children

12/29/08

Lin, C-Y, et al., "Association Among Serum Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults," Diabetes Care (on-line Dec. 28, 2008)

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased B cell function (associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome)

3/09

Costa, G., et al., "Thirty Years of Medical Surveillance in Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Workers," 51 J.O.E.M. (3) 1-9 (March 2009)

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

10/21/09

Steenland, K., et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate With Serum Lipids Among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant," Amer. J. Epidem. (doi:10.1093/aje/kwp279) (on-line Oct. 21, 2009)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Adults)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased non-HDL

Increased triglycerides

11/2/09

Nelson, J.W., et al., "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cholesterol, Body Weight, and Insulin Resistance in the General U.S. Population," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0901165) (online Nov. 2, 2009)

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

9/7/10

Frisbee, S.J., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid, Perfluorooctanesulfonate, and Serum Lipids in Children and Adolescents," 164 Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. (9) 860-69 (Sept. 2010)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased HDL

5/10/12

C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "Infections, obesity and clinical markers in children in relation to PFOA serum level during pregnancy in mothers in the Mid-Ohio Valley"

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased LDL and decreased insulin associated with prenatal exposure

8/3/12

Wang, J., et al., "Association of perfluorooctanoic acid with HDL cholesterol and circulating miR-26b and miR-199-3p in workers of a fluorochemical plant and nearby residents," Environ. Science & Techn. (doi: 10.1021/es300906q) (on-line Aug. 3, 2012)

Chinese Researchers

Chinese Fluorochemical Workers and Nearby Residents

Decreased HDL-C

Increased miR-26b

Increased miR-199a-3p

8/12

C-8 Science Panel ISEE 2012 Presentation Slides: "Gene expression and epigenetic modification in lipid regulating genes in relation to PFOA and PFOS," (ISEE August 2012 conference slides)

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased NR1H2 (Liver receptor B; LXRB) transcript levels (gene involved in lipid metabolism)

10/26/12

C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for heart disease (including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease)"

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased hypercholesterolemia/probable link

2/18/13

Erikson, K.T., et al., "Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population," PLoS ONE 8(2) (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056969) (on-line Feb. 18, 2013)

Danish Cancer Soc.

General Danish Population (50-65 year olds)

Increased total cholesterol

7/13

Fitz-Simon, N., et al., "Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid," 24 Epidem. (4) 1-8 (July 2013)

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased LDL associated with decreased PFOA

11/13

Geiger, S.D., et al., "The association between PFOA, PFOS and serum lipid levels," Chemosphere (on-line 11/13)

WVU and Other Researchers

General U.S. Population (12-18 year olds)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL-C

5/14

Fu, Y., et al., "Associations between serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipid levels in a Chinese population," 106 Ecotoxicology & Environ. Safety 246-52 (2014)

Chinese Researchers

General Chinese Population

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL-C

9/26/14

Winquist, A. & Steenland, K., "Modeled PFOA Exposure and Coronary Artery Disease, Hypertension, and High Cholesterol in Community and Worker Cohorts," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307943) (on-line Sept. 26, 2014)

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased cholesterol

159

Zeng, X.W., et al., "Association of polyfluoroalkyl chemical exposure with serum lipids in children," 512-513C Sci. Total Environ. 364-70 (Jan. 29, 2015)

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Children Aged 12-15)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

Decreased HDL

162

Maisonet, M., et al., "Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipids at ages 7 and 15 in females," 82 Environ. Int'l 49-60 (May 23, 2015)

U.K/U.S. Researchers

General U.K. Population (Females)

Prenatal exposure may effect later life lipid levels

168

Braun, J. M., et al., "Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 years of Age: The HOME Study," Obesity J. (doi: 10.1002/oby.21258) (on-line Nov. 11, 2015)

Brown Univ.

General U.S. Population (Children in Ohio and Kentucky)

Increased adiposity at age 8 and more rapid increase in BMI between ages 2-8

II. URIC ACID

1/10/05

DuPont Press Releases/Slides Regarding First-Phase Worker Health Study Results Examining PFOA Exposure

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased uric acid

3/09

Costa, G., et al., "Thirty Years of Medical Surveillance in Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Workers," 51 J.O.E.M. (3) 1-9 (March 2009)

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased uric acid

10/22/09

Steenland, K., et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with Uric Acid Among Adults with Elevated Community Exposure to PFOA," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0900940) (on-line Oct. 22, 2009)

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (adults)

Increased uric acid

9/11

Shankar, A., Xiao, J., & Ducatman, A., "Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and elevated serum uric acid in US adults," 3 Clin. Epidem. 251-58 (Sept. 2011)

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased uric acid

4/3/13

Geiger, S.D., Xiao, J., & Shankar, A., "Positive Association Between Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Hyperuricemia in Children," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kws392) (on-line April 3, 2013)

Univ. Wisc.

General U.S. Population (Children)

Increased hyperuricemia

3/10/16

Qin, X.D., et al., "Positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances with uric acid and hyperuricemia in children from Taiwan," J. Env. Pollution (doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.050) (on-line March 10, 2016)

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwan Population (Children 12-15)

Increased serum uric acid in boys

III. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (IHD)

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- coronary disease

•- cardiac arrest

•- hypertension

8/07

Leonard, R.C., et al., "Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers," J. Ann. Epidem. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.06.011) (on-line Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD mortality

2008

Anderson-Mahoney, P., et al., "Self-Reported Health Effects Among Community Residents Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate," 18 New Solutions (2) 129-43 (2008)

UCLA

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased self-reports of angina

6/23/09

Sakr, C.J., et al., "Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Study among Workers with Occupational Exposure to Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041582) (on-line June 24, 2009)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD deaths at longest exposure categories

5/31/12

Min, J-Y, et al., "Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure is associated with elevated homocysteine and hypertension in US adults," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2011-100288) (on-line May 31, 2012)

Korean Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased homocysteine and systolic blood pressure/hypertension

9/3/12

Shankar, A., Xiao, J., & Ducatman, A., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease," Arch. Internal Med. (doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3393) (on-line Sept. 3, 2012)

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Increased peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

IV. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE (STROKE/MI)

3/30/81

DuPont Internal Report - "Study of Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates at Washington Works"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased MI incidence among foremen

4/26/01

Univ. Minn. Internal Report - "Mortality Study of Workers Employed at the 3M Cottage Grove Facility"

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased death from cerebrovascular disease

2008

Anderson-Mahoney, P., et al., "Self-Reported Health Effects Among Community Residents Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate," 18 New Solutions (2) 129-43 (2008)

UCLA

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased self reports of MI

Increased self reports of stroke

11/09

Lundin, J.I., et al., "Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production and Occupational Mortality," 20 J. Epidem. (6) 921-28 (Nov. 2009)

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased cerebrovascular disease death

10/13

Simpson, C., et al., "Relation between perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and strokes in a large cohort living near a chemical plant," J. Environ. Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2013.10.002) (on-line Oct. 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased stroke incidence, except for highest exposure levels

V. DIABETES

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for diabetes

8/07

Leonard, R.C., et al., "Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers," J. Ann. Epidem. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.06.011) (on-line Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased diabetes mortality

12/29/08

Lin, C-Y, et al., "Association Among Serum Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults," Diabetes Care (on-line Dec. 28, 2008)

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased B cell function

(associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome)

11/09

Lundin, J.I., et al., "Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production and Occupational Mortality," 20 J. Epidem. (6) 921-28 (Nov. 2009)

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased diabetes death

11/13

Lind, L., et al., "Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and prevalent diabetes in the elderly," Diabetologia (doi: 10.1007/s0013-3126-3) (on-line 11/13)

Swedish Researchers

General Swedish Population Age 70

Increased diabetes prevalence

1/19/15

Steenland, K, et al, "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/0emed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased type 2 diabetes

VI. CANCER

2/80

Schuman, L. M. & Mandel, J. S., "An Epidemiologic Mortality Study of Employees at the Chemolite Plant" (Internal 3M Report)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased following forms of cancer among males working more than 6 months in Chemical Division:

- Esophogus

- Larynx

- Skin

- Prostate

- Testis

10/92

Ph.D. Thesis: Gilliland, F., "Fluorocarbons and Human Health: Studies in an Occupational Cohort"

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased leukocyte counts

Increased prostate cancer deaths in long exposure group

9/93

Gilliland, F.D. & Mandel, J.S., "Mortality Among Employees of a Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Plant," 35 J.O.E.M. (9) 950-54 (Sept. 1993)

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer deaths in high exposure group

2003

Alexander, B.H., et al., "Mortality of employees of a perfluorooctanesulphonyl fluoride manufacturing facility," 60 J. Occup. Environ. Med. 722-29 (2003)

U. Minn.

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased bladder cancer deaths

Increased liver cancer deaths

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- Malignant colon neoplasm

•- Malignant rectum neoplasm

•- Malignant neoplasm of lower respiratory tract

•- Malignant skin melanoma

•- Malignant prostate neoplasm

- Benign colonic polyps

10/04

Dahlgren, J., et al., "Prevalence and Incidence of Cancer in Populations Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)," Arch. Environ. Health [accepted for publication 10/04 but never published]

UCLA

WV/OH C8 Community

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased self-reported prevalence of:

•- Uterine/cervical cancer

•- Multiple myeloma

•- Lung cancer

•- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

•- Bladder cancer

•- Colon/rectal cancer

Increased bladder cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased prostate cancer

11/04-

2/05

Dahlgren, J., et al., Abstracts/Presentation Charts

UCLA

WW/OH C8 Community

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased self-reported cervical/uterine cancer

Increased self-reported prostate cancer

Increased self-reported breast cancer

Increased prostate cancer

3/1/06

WV Dept. Health Report: "Examination of Community Concerns about Water Contamination with Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Related Chemicals Using Population-based Cancer Registry Data"

WV Dept. Health

Wood/Mason Cty WV General Population

Increased prostate cancer incidence

Increased leukemia incidence

Increased non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence

Increased cutaneous melanoma

11/06

LeMasters, G.K., et al., "Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review amd Meta-analysis of 32 Studies," 48 J.O.E.M. (11) 1189-1202 (Nov. 2006)

Univ. Cincinnati

Firefighters (PFOA not directly measured)

Increased risk of multiple myeloma

Increased risk of non-Hodgkins lymphoma

Increased risk of prostate cancer

Increased risk of testicular cancer

8/07

Leonard, R.C., et al., "Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers," J. Ann. Epidem. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.06.011) (on-line Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

4/7/09

Eriksen, K.T., et al., "Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctanesulfonate Plasma Levels and Risk of Cancer in the General Danish Population," 101 J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 605-609 (2009)

Danish Cancer Society

General Danish Population

Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in highest exposure group

11/09

Lundin, J.I., et al., "Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production and Occupational Mortality," 20 J. Epidem. (6) 921-28 (Nov. 2009)

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer death

10/18/12

Steenland, K. & Woskie, S., "Cohort Mortality Study of Workers Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kws171) (on-line Oct. 18, 2012)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

10/6/11

Bonefeld-Jorgensen, E. C., et al., "Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in Greenland Inuit: A case control study," 10:88 Environ. Health 2011 (doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-88) (on-line 10/6/11)

Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

General Greelandic Inuit Population

Increased risk of breast cancer

4/15/12

C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Cancer"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased kidney cancer/probable link

Increased testicular cancer/probable link

1/8/13

Vieira, V.M., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Cancer Outcomes in a Contaminated Community: A Geographic Analysis," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205829) (on-line Jan. 8, 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased testicular cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased prostate cancer

Increased ovarian cancer

Increased Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

7/4/13

Consonni, D., et al., "Cancer Risk Among Tetrafluoroethylene Synthesis and Polymerization Workers," Am. J. Epidem. (DOI: 10.1093/aje/kws588) (on-line July 4, 2013)

Italian Researchers

U.S./European Fluorochemical Workers (Including DuPont WV PFOA Workers)

Increased liver cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased leukemia

12/13

Barry, V., Winquist, A., & Steenland, K., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposures and Incident Cancers among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant," 121 Environ. Health Perspec. 1313-1318 (Dec. 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased kidney cancer

Increased testicular cancer

5/15/14

Raleigh, K.K., et al., "Mortality and cancer incidence in ammonium perfluorooctanoate production workers," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102109) (on-line May 15, 2014)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Production Workers

Increased bladder cancer

Increased pancreatic cancer

1/19/15

Steenland, K., et al., "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased prostate cancer

VII. IMMUNE FUNCTION

12/22/78

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of allergic disorders

8/06

Emmett, E.A., et al., "Community Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Levels and Certain Health Parameters," 48 J.O.E.M. (8) 771-779 (Aug. 2006)]

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased monocyte count

2008

WVU Slides From On-Line Presentation

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased CRP

Decreased IG

3/09

Costa, G., et al., "Thirty Years of Medical Surveillance in Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Workers," 51 J.O.E.M. (3) 1-9 (March 2009)

Mitini (Italy)

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased IgA

Increased globulins

3/16/09

C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "PFOA and immune biomarkers in adults exposed to PFOA in drinking water in the mid Ohio Valley"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased lgA

Increased ANA

Decreased CRP

Decreased IgE (females)

2010

Nolan, L.A., et al., "Congenital Anomolies, Labor/Delivery Complications, Maternal Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water," (published 2010)

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking, OH Water Customers

Increased anemia

8/26/10

Fei, C., et al., "Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood," 110 Environ. Research 773-77 (2010)

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Slightly increased risk of hospitalization for girls with highest prenatal exposures

4/19/11

Wang, I-Jen, et al., "The effect of prenatal perfluorinated chemicals exposures on pediatric atopy," Environ. Res. (doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.04.006) (online May 2011)

Taiwan Hospital

General Taiwan Population (Children)

Increased cord blood IgE levels

10/11

Okada, E., et al., "Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and relationship with allergies and infectious diseases in infants," Environ. Research (doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.10.003) (on-line 10/11)

Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

General Sapparo Japan Population (Infants)

Decreased IgE (female infants)

1/25/12

Grandjean, P., et al., "Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds," 307 (4) J.A.M.A. 391-97 (Jan. 25, 2012)

Harvard Univ.

General Faroe Islands Population (Children)

Decreased humoral immune response to childhood vaccinations

2/12

Nygaard, U.C., et al., "Perfluorinated compounds and immune health outcomes in 3-years-old children," SOT 2012 Poster/Abstract (Feb. 2012)

Norwegian Inst. Pub. Health

General Norwegian Population - Children

Decreased response to rubella vaccination

7/30/12

C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Autoimmune Disease"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with ulcerative colitis

1/8/13

Dong, G-H, et al., "Serum Polyfluoroalkyl Concentrations, Asthma Outcomes, and Immunological Markers in a Case-Control Study of Taiwanese Children," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205351 ) (on-line Jan. 8, 2013)

China Med. Univ.

General Northern Taiwan Population (10-15 year olds)

Increased asthma

1/25/13

Granum, B., et al., "Pre-natal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may be associated with altered vaccine antibody levels and immune-related health outcomes in early childhood," J. Immunotoxicol., Early Online (doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2012.755580) (on-line Jan. 25, 2013)

Norwegian Inst. Pub. Health

General Norwegian Population

Decreased ant-rubella antibodies in children

Increased incidence of common colds (children under 3)

Increased incidence of gastroenteritis (children under 3)

6/4/13

Steenland, K., et al., "Ulcerative Colitis and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Highly Exposed Population of Community Residents and Workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206449) (on-line June 4, 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased ulcerative colitis

6/6/14

Humblet, O., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12-19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999-2008)," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606) (on-line June 6, 2014)

Univ. Cal.

General U.S. Population (Children 12-19)

Increased asthma

1/19/15

Steenland, K., et al., "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased ulcerative colitis

Increased rheumatoid arthritis

8/9/16

Grandjean, P., et. al., "Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP275) (on-line Aug. 9, 2016)

Harvard Univ.

General Faroe Islands Population (Ages 7, 13)

Decreased antibody response

VIII. THYROID FUNCTION

10/92

Ph.D. Thesis: Gilliland, F., "Fluorocarbons and Human Health: Studies in an Occupational Cohort"

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased TSH

3/03

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Epidemiologic Assessment of Worker Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Concentrations and Medical Surveillance Examinations," 45 J.O.E.M. (3) 260-70 (March 2003)

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased T3

6/07

Olsen, G.W. & Zobel, L.R., "Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical workers," Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health (doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0213-0) (on-line 6/07)

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased free T4

Increased T3

2008

WVU Slides From On-Line Presentation

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased free TH

1/20/10

Melzer, D., et al., "Association Between Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Thyroid Disease in the NHANES Study," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0901584) (on-line Jan. 20, 2010)

Peninsula Medical School

General U.S. Population

Increased reported thyroid disease in women

Increased reported thyroid disease in men

8/1/11

Knox, S.S., et al., "Perfluorocarbon exposure, gender and thyroid function in the C8 Health Project," 36 (4) J. Toxicol. Sci. 403-410 (Aug. 2011)

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased serum thyroxine

Reduced T3

8/2/11

Kim, S., et al., "Trans-Placental Transfer of Thirteen Perfluorinated Compounds and Relations with Fetal Thyroid Hormones," Environ. Health Persp. ("just accepted manuscript") (Aug. 2, 2011)

Korean Univ.

General S. Korean Population

Reduced thyroid hormone levels

12/5/11

C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "PFOA and adult thyroid disease in the mid-Ohio valley"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population - Adults

Increased thyroid disease

3/27/12

Lopez-Espinosa, M-J., et al., "Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104370) (on-line March 27, 2012)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population - Children

Increased thyroid disease

6/12

Bloom, M., et al., "Exposure to Persistent Organohalogen Pollutants is Associated With Thyroid Function Among Older Residents of Upper Hudson River Communities" (ISEE 2012 Abstract)

Univ. Albany

General Upper Hudson River NY Population

Increased T4

7/30/12

C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Thyroid Disease"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with thyroid disease

7/17/13

Wen, L-L, et al., "Association Between Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Thyroid Function in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010," J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. (doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1282) (on-line July 17, 2013)

Taiwanese Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased T3 in women

Increased subclinical hypothyroidism in women

3/14

Winquist, A. & Steenland, K., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Thyroid Disease in Community and Worker Cohorts," 25 (2) Epidemiology 255-64 (March 2014)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased thyroid disease

12/4/14

Shrestha S., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults," 75C Environ Int. 206-214 (Dec. 4, 2014)

S.U.N.Y. Albany

General New York State Population

Increased fT4 and T4 with age

12/10/14

de Cock, M., et al., "Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in relation to thyroid hormone levels in infants - a Dutch prospective cohort study," 13(1) Environ. Health 106 (Dec. 10, 2014)

Dutch Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased T4 in girls at high exposure

1/19/15

Steenland, K., et al., "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased thyroid disease (males)

10/30/15

Webster, G. M., et al., "Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007-2008)," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409589) (on-line Oct. 30, 2015)

Canadian Researchers

General U.S. Population

Increased thyroid disruption in sensitive subpopulation of adults with high TPOAb and low iodine status

IX. LIVER FUNCTION

12/22/78

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Abnormal liver function

3/15/79

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Abnormal liver function

8/80

Ubel, F.A., et al., "Health status of plant workers exposed to fluorochemicals - a preliminary report," 41 Amer. Indus. Hygiene Assoc. J. 384-89 (1980)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased SGOT

1/28/81

DuPont Internal Report - "Liver Function Study of Washington Works Employees Exposed to C-8"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

1996

Gilliland, F.D. & Mandel, J.S., "Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Hepatic Enzymes, Lipoproteins, and Cholesterol: A Study of Occupationally Exposed Men," 29 Amer. J. Indus. Med. 560-68 (1996)

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Altered SGOT, GGT, and SGPT dependant on alcohol & obesity levels

8/5/96

DuPont Internal Report - "C-8 Study"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

Increased LDH

3/03

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Epidemiologic Assessment of Worker Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Concentrations and Medical Surveillance Examinations," 45 J.O.E.M. (3) 260-70 (March 2003)

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased GGT

Increased AP

Increased ALT

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for liver disorders

4/2/07

DuPont Letters to USEPA Supplementing Phase I Worker Study Results

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased LDH

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased serum aspartate aminotransferase

6/07

Olsen, G.W. & Zobel, L.R., "Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical workers," Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health (doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0213-0) (on-line 6/07)

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased bilirubin

Increased Alkaline phosphatase

Increased ALT/GGT

8/07

Sakr, C.J., et al., "Longitudinal Study of Serum Lipids and Liver Enzymes in Workers With Occupational Exposure to Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate," 49 J.O.E.M. (8) 872-79 (Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased AST

10/07

Sakr, C.J., et al., "Cross-Sectional Study of Lipids and Liver Enzymes Related to a Serum Biomarker of Exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as Part of a General Health Survey in a Cohort of Occupationally Exposed Workers," 49 J.O.E.M. (10) 1086-96 (Oct. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased GGT

Increased AST

Increased ALT

2008

WVU Slides From On-Line Presentation

WVU

C8 WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Increased AST/SGOT

3/09

Costa, G., et al., "Thirty Years of Medical Surveillance in Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Workers," 51 J.O.E.M. (3) 1-9 (March 2009)

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Decreased bilirubin

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

Increased ALP

12/15/09

Lin, C-Y, et al., "Investigation of the Associations Between Low-Dose Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Liver Enzymes in US Adults," Amer. J. Gastroenterology (doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.707) (online Dec. 15, 2009)

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

1/30/12

Gallo, V., et al., "Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluoroctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure," Environ. Health Perspec., (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104436) (on-line Jan. 30, 2012)

C8 Science Panel

C8 WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased ALT

6/12

Christensen, K., et al., "Method to Assess Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals and Liver Disease: NHANES 2003-2006" (ISEE 2012 Abstract)

US EPA

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT

1/19/15

Steenland, K., et al., "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased non-hepatitis liver disease

3/15/16

Darrow, L.A., et al., "Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community," Environ. Health Pers. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510391) (on-line March 15, 2016)

C8 Science Panel

C8 WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Decreased bilirubin

X. KIDNEY FUNCTION

8/5/96

DuPont Internal Report - "C-8 Study"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased kidney disease incidence

8/07

Leonard, R.C., et al., "Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers," J. Ann. Epidem. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.06.011) (on-line Aug. 2007)

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

10/18/12

Steenland, K. & Woskie, S., "Cohort Mortality Study of Workers Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid," Am. J. Epidem. (doi. 10.1093/aje/kws171) (on-line Oct. 18, 2012)

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

Increased death from chronic kidney disease

8/26/11

Shankar, A. & Ducatman, A., "Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Chronic Kidney Disease in US Adults," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr171) (Aug. 26, 2011)

WVU

General US Population

Increased chronic kidney disease

3/11/13

Watkins, D.J., et al., "Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function Among Children and Adolescents Living Near a Chemical Plant, " Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205838) (on-line March 11, 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Decreased eGFR (kidney function)

XI. HORMONE EFFECTS

3/15/79

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of endocrine/metabolic disorders

10/92

Ph.D. Thesis: Gilliland, F., "Fluorocarbons and Human Health: Studies in an Occupational Cohort"

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estrodiol

Decreased free testosterone

Increased hemoglobin

Increased mean cellular volume

7/98

Olsen, G.W., et al., "An Epidemiologic Investigation of Reproductive Hormones in Men With Occupational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid," 40 J.O.E.M. (7) 614-22 (July 1998)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estradiol in high exposure group

Elevated 17-HP

4/2/07

DuPont Letters to USEPA Supplementing Phase I Worker Study Results

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased estradiol

Increased testosterone

3/26/15

Tsai, M.S., et al., "Association between perfluorooalkyl substances and reproductive hormones in adolescents and young adults," Int. J. Environ. Health (doi: 10.1016/ijheh.2015.03.008) (on-line March 26, 2015)

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Aged 12-30)

Decreased SHBG

6/2/15

Maisonet, M., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408847) (on-line June 2, 2015).

East Tenn. State Researchers

General U.K. Population (15 Years Old)

Increased testosterone following prenatal exposures

8/16

Lopez-Espinosa, M-J., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6-9 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project," 124(8) Environ. Health Persp. 1269-1275 (Aug. 2016)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children 6-9)

Decreased testosterone in boys

XII. DEVELOPMENTAL/REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

9/81

DuPont Internal Reports Relating to: "Study of Pregnancy Outcome in Washington Works Employees"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased birth defect incidence

12/84

DuPont Internal Reports Relating to: "Allegation of Significant Adverse Reaction - Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Section 8(c)"

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers - Males

Claims of infertility among male workers - not pursued

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- Preterm labor

•- Infertility

11/04-

2/05

Dahlgren, et al, Abstracts/presentation Slides

UCLA

WW/OH C8 Community

Decreased age to menopause

7/31/07

Apelberg, B.J., et al., "Cord Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Relation to Weight and Size at Birth," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.10334) (on-line July 31, 2007)

Johns Hopkins

General US Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased ponderal index

Decreased head circumference

8/16/07

Fei, C., et al., "Perfluorinated Chemicals and Fetal Growth: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort," Eniron. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.10506 (on-line Aug. 16, 2007)

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Decreased birth weight

1/28/09

Fei., C., et al., "Maternal levels of perfluorinated chemicals and subfecundity," 1 Human Repro. (1) 1-6 (2009)

Univ. Cal.

General Danish population

Increased time to pregnancy

3/2/09

Nordstrom, U., et al., "Do Perfluoroalkyl Compounds Impair Human Semen Quality?" Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0800517) (on-line March 2, 2009)]

Univ. Denmark

General Danish population

Decreased normal sperm

819/09

Stein, C.R., et al., "Serum Levels of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Pregnancy Outcome," Amer. J. Epidem. (doi:10.1093/aje/kwp212) (on-line Aug. 12, 2009)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Increased birth defects

11/09

Pinney, S.M., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Pubertal Maturation in Young Girls," 20 J. Epidem. (6) S80 (Nov. 2009)] [ABSTRACT ONLY]

Univ. Cincinnati

General OH/KY Population

Increased pubescent maturation in breasts of young girls

2010

Nolan, L.A., et al., "Congenital Anomolies, Labor/Delivery Complications, Maternal Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water," (published 2010)

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased dysfunctional labor

8/26/10

Fei, C., et al., "Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood," 110 Environ. Research 773-77 (2010)

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Slightly increased risk of hospitalization for girls with highest prenatal PFOA exposure

9/13/10

Christensen, K.Y., et al., "Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals during pregnancy is not associated with offspring age at menarche in a contemporary British cohort," 37 Environ. Int'l 129-35 (2011)

Emory Univ.

General U.K. Population

Decreased time to menarche/puberty in girls

10/12/10

Anderson, C.S., et al., "Prenatal Exposures to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Anthropometric Measures in Infancy," 172 Amer. J. Epidem. (11) 1230-37 (Oct. 2010)

Danish Govt.

General Danish Population

Decreased baby weight in first year

Decreased baby body mass in first year

3/16/11

Knox, S.S., et al., "Implications of Early Menopause in Women Exposed to Perfluorocarbons," 96 J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (6) (doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2401) (online March 16, 2011)

WVU

WW/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased time to menopause

5/2/11

Lopez-Espinosa, M-J, et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with Age of Puberty among Children Living near a Chemical Plant," Environ. Sci. & Technol. (doi:10.1021/es1038694) (on-line May 2, 2011) - FINAL 10/1/11

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (children)

Increased time to reach puberty in girls

12/5/11

C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Preeclampsia"

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link with pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia

2/3/12

Halldorsson, T.I., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate and Risk of Overweight at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104034) (on-line Feb. 3, 2012)

Danish/Icelandic Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased overweight female children at age 20

3/26/12

Savitz, D.A., et al., "Relationship of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure to Pregnancy Outcome Based on Birth Records in the Mid-Ohio Valley," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104752) (on-line March 26, 2012)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Inconsistent decreased birth weight in highest exposure categories

Inconsistent reduced fetal growth

Large, imprecise associations with early preterm birth

5/12

Savitz, D.A., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome in a Highly Exposed Community," 23 (3) J. Epidem. 1-7 (May 2012)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Slight increase in congenital heart defects

7/12

Wu, K., et al., "Association between maternal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from electronic waste recycling and neonatal health outcomes," 48 Environ. Int'l 1-8 (2012)

Shantou Univ . (China)

General Chinese Population living near electronic waste recycling area

Decreased gestational age

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased Apgar scores

8/30/12

Maisonet, M., et al., "Maternal Concentrations of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds during Pregnancy and Fetal and Postnatal growth in British Girls," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003096) (on-line Aug. 30, 2012)

Emory Univ.

General British Population

Decreased birth weight

9/20/12

Lee, Y.J., et al., "Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl compounds in maternal and umbilical cord sera and birth outcomes in Korea," Chemosphere (doi: 10.1016/j.chemospehere.2012.08.035) (on-line Sept. 20, 2012)

Korean University Researchers

General Korean Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased ponderal index

11/12

Louis, G.M.B., et al., "Perfluorochemicals and Endometriosis: The ENDO Study," 23 Epidem. (6) 1-7 (Nov. 2012)

Eunice Kennedy Shriver Nat. Inst. Of Child Health and Human Health

General U.S. Population (Salt Lake City and San Francisco areas)

Increased endometriosis

1/28/13

Vested, A., et al., "Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205118) (on-line Jan. 28, 2013)

Danish Univ.

General Danish Population (men 19-21 years old)

Decreased adjusted sperm concentration

Decreased total sperm count

Increased luteinizing hormone (LH)

Increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

7/9/13

Darrow, L.A., Stein, C.R., & Steenland, K., "Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005-2010," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372) (on-line July 9, 2013)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased pregnancy-induced hypertension

10/15/13

Kristensen, S.L., et al., "Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction," Human Reprod. (doi: 10.1093/humrep/det382) (on-line Oct. 15, 2013)

Danish Researchers

General Danish Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased time to menarche among daughters of exposed women

10/25/13

Lyngso, J., et al., "Menstrual cycle characteristics in fertile women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine exposed to perfluorinated chemicals: a cross-sectional study," Human Reprod. (doi: 10.1093/humrep/det390) (on-line Oct. 25, 2013)

Danish Researchers

General Greenland/Poland/Ukraine Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased length of menstrual cycle

2/14

Taylor, K.W., et al., "Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)," 122 (2) Environ. Health Perspec. 145-50 (Feb. 2014)

NIEHS

General U.S. Population (Women ages 20-65)

Decreased time to menopause

5/14

Darrow, L.A., et al., "PFOA and PFOS Serum Levels and Miscarriage Risk," 25 Epidem. __ (2014)

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased miscarriage risk at highest exposure level

8/15/14

Louis, G.M.B., et al., "Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study," Environ. Health Persp. () (on-line Aug. 15, 2014)

Shriver Nat. Inst. Of Child health & Human Devel.

General U.S. Population

Decreased sperm with coiled tails

6/26/15

Lenters, V., et al., "Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression," Environ. Health Perspec. (on-line June 26, 2015).

General Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine Population (Infants)

Decreased birth weight

XIII. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS

3/15/79

DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased mental/psychoneurotic disorders

6/15/10

Hoffman, K., et al., "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children Aged 12-15 Years," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.1001898) (on-line June 15, 2010)

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population (12-15 Year-Olds)

Increased self-report of ADHD

10/1/11

Stein, C.R. & Savitz, D.A., "Serum Perfluorinated Compound Concentration and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.1003538) (on-line June 10, 2011)] - FINAL published 10/1/11

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (5-18 Year-Olds)

Increased self-reported ADHD with medication in children at lower exposure levels with decreased level at highest exposure level

12/16/14

Donauer, S., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Infant Neurobehavior," J. Pediatr. (doi: 10.1016/j.peds.2014.11.021) (on-line Dec. 16, 2014)

Univ. Cincinnati

General U.S. Population

Increased hypotonic categorization of infants

10/13/15

Goudarzi, H., et al., "Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and neurodevelopment in early infancy: The Hokkaido Study," 541 Sci. Total Environ. 1002-1010 (Oct. 13, 2015)

Decreased mental development scores in females at age 6 months

XIV. PANCREATIC EFFECTS

2000

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Plasma Cholecystokinin and Hepatic Enzymes, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production Workers," 23 Drug & Chem. Toxicol. (4) 603-20 (2000)

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased CCK

8/04

Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- acute pancreatitis

•- pancreatitis

4/7/09

Eriksen, K.T., et al., "Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctanesulfonate Plasma Levels and Risk of Cancer in the General Danish Population," 101 J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 605-609 (2009)

Danish Cancer Society

General Danish Population

Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in highest exposure group

XV. OSTEOARTHRITIS EFFECTS

6/27/11

Innes, K.E., et al., "Association of Osteoarthritis With Serum Levels of Environmental Contaminants Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in a Large Appalachian Population," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr107) (online June 27, 2011)

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased osteoarthritis

2/8//13

Uhl, S.A., et al., "Association of Osteoarthritis with Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in NHANES 2003-2008," Environ. Health Perspec. (Http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205673) (online Feb. 8, 2013)

Yale

General US Population (20-84 year olds)

Increased osteoarthritis in women

2/15

Galloway, T.S., et al., "PFOA and PFOS are associated with reduced expression of the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women," 120 Chemosphere 555-62 (Feb. 2015)

UK Researchers

General UK Population

Reduced parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women

6/9/15

Khalil, N., et al., "Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009-2010," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307909) (on-line June 9, 2015).

Ohio Researchers

General U.S. Population

Increased osteoporosis in women