PFOA HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS BY ENDPOINT

TAB

DATE

PUBLISHED?

SPONSOR

POPULATION

ASSOCIATION

STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT?

I. LIPIDS

1

12/22/78

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of metabolic disorders

Yes

12

1996

Yes

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Altered HDL dependant on alcohol & obesity levels

Yes

17

3/03

Yes

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased triglycerides

Increased cholesterol

Yes

Yes

15

2000

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased CCK

Yes

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- disorders of lipid metabolism

- cholelithiasis

 

20

9/7/04

No

Mitini (Italy)

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

No

No

22

1/10/05

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

Yes

Yes

Yes

24

8/06

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased cholesterol

No

27

6/07

Yes

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased HDL

Increased triglycerides

Yes

Yes

30

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Yes

32

10/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased VLDL

Yes

Yes

Yes

33

2008

No

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased total cholesterol-children

 

36

12/29/08

Yes

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased B cell function (associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome)

Yes

40

3/09

Yes

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Yes

47

10/21/09

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Adults)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased non-HDL

Increased triglycerides

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

52

11/2/09

Yes

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

Yes

Yes

59

9/7/10

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased HDL

Yes

Yes

No

82

11/17/11

Yes

Taiwan Hospital

General Taiwanese Population (ages 12-30)

No associations with glucose homeostasis, adiponectin level, lipid profile, or inflammatory markers in young population with low average PFOA exposures (only 2.39 ppb average PFOA serum level)

 

89

7/13

Yes

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased LDL associated with decreased PFOA

Yes

96

8/12

Yes

3M

3M Fluorochemical Demolition Workers

Increased HDL

[No significant positive associations with non-HDL cholesterol]

 

93

3/12

Yes

3M

General US Population

Partitioning of PFOA to lipid fraction of blood does not support reverse causality on lipid associations

 

100

5/10/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No association between prenatal exposure and increased risk of obesity or metabolic syndrome]

Increased LDL and decreased insulin associated with prenatal exposure

No

112

8/3/12

Yes

Chinese Researchers

Chinese Fluorochemical Workers and Nearby Population

Decreased HDL-C

Increased miR-26b

Increased miR-199a-3p

Yes

115

8/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased NR1H2 (Liver receptor B; LXRB) transcript levels (gene involved in lipid metabolism

 

118

10/26/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with hypercholesterolemia

Yes

129

2/18/13

Yes

Danish Cancer Soc.

General Danish Population (50-65 year olds)

Increased total cholesterol

Yes

140

11/13

Yes

WVU and Other Researchers

General U.S. Population (12-18 year olds)

Increased total cholesterol and LDL-C

Yes

149

5/14

Yes

Chinese Researchers

General Chinese Population

Increased total cholesterol and LDLC

 

152

9/26/14

Yes

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased cholesterol

Yes

159

1/29/15

Yes

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Children 12-15 Years Old)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

Decreased HDL

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

162

5/23/15

Yes

U.S/U.K Researchers

General U.K. Population (Females)

Prenatal exposure may effect later life lipid levels

 

168

11/11/15

Yes

Brown Univ.

General U.S. Population (Children in Ohio and Kentucky)

Increased adiposity at age 8 and more rapid increase in BMI between ages 2-8

 

II. URIC ACID

22

1/10/05

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased uric acid

Yes

40

3/09

Yes

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased uric acid

Yes

48

10/22/09

Yes

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (adults)

Increased uric acid

Yes

78

9/11

Yes

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased uric acid

Yes

130

4/3/13

Yes

Univ. Wisc.

General U.S. Population (Children)

Increased hyperuricemia

Yes

171

3/10/16

Yes

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwan Population (Children 12-15)

Increased serum uric acid in boys

Yes

III. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (IHD)

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for coronary disease/cardiac arrest/hypertension

 

31

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD mortality

No

37

2008

Yes

Plaintiffs

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased self-reports of angina

 

44

6/23/09

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD deaths at longest exposure categories

No

101

5/31/12

Yes

Korean Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased homocysteine and systolic blood pressure/hypertension

Yes

114

9/3/12

Yes

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Increased peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Yes

Yes

118

10/26/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with hypertension]

[No Probable Link found with coronary artery disease]

 

IV. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE (STROKE/MI)

5

3/30/81

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased MI incidence among foremen

Yes

16

4/26/01

No

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased death from cerebrovascular disease

Yes

37

2008

Yes

Plaintiffs

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased self reports of MI

Increased self reports of stroke

 

51

11/09

Yes

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased cerebrovascular disease death

Yes

110

7/30/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with stroke]

 

137

10/13

Yes

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased stroke incidence, except at highest exposure levels

 

V. DIABETES

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for diabetes

 

31

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased diabetes mortality

Yes

36

12/29/08

Yes

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased B cell function

(associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome)

Yes

46/142

9/09 [PUBLISHED 11/13]

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[no association with adult Type II diabetes]

 

51

11/09

Yes

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased diabetes death

Yes

98

4/13/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link with adult Type II diabetes]

 

107

7/30/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link with Type 1 diabetes

 

143

11/13

Yes

Swedish Researchers

General Swedish Population Age 70

Increased diabetes prevalence

No

158

1/19/15

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased type 2 diabetes

 

VI. CANCER

2A

2/80

No

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased following types of cancer among males working more than 6 months in Chemical Division:

- Esophogus

- Larynx

- Skin

- Prostate

- Testis

 

10

10/92

No

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased leukocyte counts

Increased prostate cancer deaths in long exposure group

Yes

Yes

11

9/93

Yes

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer deaths in high exposure group

Yes

16

4/26/01

No

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

[no cancer death excess using redefined exposure categories]

 

18

2003

Yes

U. Minn.

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased bladder cancer deaths

Increased liver cancer deaths

Yes

No

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- Malignant colon neoplasm

•- Malignant rectum neoplasm

•- Malignant neoplasm of lower respiratory tract

•- Malignant skin melanoma

•- Malignant prostate neoplasm

•- Benign colonic polyps

 

90

10/04

No

UCLA

WV/OH C8 Community

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased self-reported prevalence of:

•- Uterine/cervical cancer

•- Multiple myeloma

•- Lung cancer

•- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

•- Bladder cancer

•- Colon/rectal cancer

Increased bladder cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased prostate cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

21

11/04-

2/05

No

UCLA

WW/OH C8 Community

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased self-reported cervical/uterine cancer

Increased self-reported prostate cancer

Increased self-reported breast cancer

Increased prostate cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

23

3/1/06

No

WV Dept. Health

Wood/Mason Cty WV General Population

Increased prostate cancer incidence

Increased leukemia incidence

Increased non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence

Increased cutaneous melanoma

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

25

11/06

Yes

Univ. Cincinnati

Firefighters (PFOA not directly measured)

Increased risk of multiple myeloma

Increased risk of non-Hodgkins lymphoma

Increased risk of prostate cancer

Increased risk of testicular cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

31

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

No

43

4/7/09

Yes

Danish Cancer Society

General Danish Population

Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in highest exposure group

No

51

11/09

Yes

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer death

Yes

70

10/18/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

Yes

79

10/6/11

Yes

Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

General Greelandic Inuit Population

Increased risk of breast cancer

Yes (combined PFCs)

99

4/15/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link with testicular cancer

Probable Link with kidney cancer

[No Probable Link with other cancers]

Yes

Yes

125

1/8/13

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased testicular cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased prostate cancer

Increased ovarian cancer

Increased Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

Yes

Yes

135

7/5/13

Yes

Italian Researchers

U.S./European Fluorochemical Workers (Including DuPont WV PFOA Workers)

Increased liver cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased leukemia

 

136

9/5/13

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased kidney cancer

Increased testicular cancer

Yes

Yes

145

1/27/14

Yes

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased colorectal cancer

Yes

148

5/14/14

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased bladder cancer

Increased pancreatic cancer

 

158

1/19/15

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased prostate cancer

 

VII. IMMUNE FUNCTION

1

12/22/78

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of allergic disorders

Yes

24

8/06

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased monocyte count

Yes

33

2008

No

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased CRP

Decreased IG

 

40

3/09

Yes

Mitini (Italy)

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased IgA

Increased globulins

No

Yes

42

3/16/09

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased lgA

Increased ANA

Decreased CRP

Decreased IgE (females)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

56

2010

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking, OH Water Customers

Increased anemia

Yes

58

8/26/10

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Slightly increased risk of hospitalization for girls with highest prenatal exposures

No

67

4/19/11

Yes

Taiwan Hospital

General Taiwan Population (Children)

Increased cord blood IgE levels

Yes

80

10/11

Yes

Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

General Sapparo Japan Population (Infants)

Decreased IgE (female infants)

[No associations with food allergy, eczema, wheezing, or otitis media in first 18 months]

Yes

91

1/25/12

Yes

Harvard Univ.

General Faroe Islands Population (Children)

Decreased humoral immune response to childhood immunizations

Yes

97

2/12

No

Norwegian Inst. Pub. Health

General Norwegian Population - Children

Decreased response to rubella vaccinations

 

100

5/10/12

No

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No association between prenatal exposure and risk of childhood infections or asthma since birth]

 

107/111/132

6/4/13

Yes

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Decreased response to influenza vaccine

Probable Link found with increased ulcerative colitis

[No Probable Link found with:

•- Rheumatoid arthritis

•- Lupus

•- Chrohn's disease

•- Multiple sclerosis

•- Common infections

•- Respiratory disease]

 

124

1/8/13

Yes

China med. Univ.

General Northern Taiwan Population (10-15 year olds)

Increased asthma

Yes

126

1/25/13

Yes

Norwegian Inst. Pub. Health

General Norwegian Population

Decreased anti-rubella antibodies

Increased incidence of common colds (children under 3)

Increased incidence of gastroenteritis (children under 3)

 

150

6/6/14

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General U.S. Population (Children 12-19)

Increased asthma

 

158

1/19/15

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased ulcerative colitis

Increased rheumatoid arthritis

 

174

8/9/16

Yes

Harvard

General Faroe Islands Population (Ages 7, 13)

Decreased antibody response

 

VIII. THYROID FUNCTION

10

10/92

No

U. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased TSH

Yes

17

3/03

Yes

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased T3

Yes

24

8/06

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

[no effect on thyroid]

 

27

6/07

Yes

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased free T4

Increased T3

Yes

Yes

33

2008

No

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased free TH

 

39

2/09

Yes

SUNY

New York General Population-Fishermen

[no effects on thyroid function]

 

55

1/20/10

Yes

Peninsula Medical School

General U.S. Population

Increased reported thyroid disease in women

Increased reported thyroid disease in men

Yes

No

65

2/8/11

Yes

Univ. Alberta

General Alberta Canada Population

[no effect on hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women]

 

73

8/1/11

Yes

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased serum thyroxine

Reduced T3

Yes

Yes

74

8/2/11

Yes

Korean Univ.

General S. Korean Population

Reduced thyroid hormone levels

No

87/144

12/5/11 [3/14 -Published]

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population - Adults

Increased thyroid disease

Yes

75

3/27/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population - Children

Increased thyroid disease

 

102

6/12

No

Univ. Albany

General Hudson River NY Population

Increased T4

 

106

7/30/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Probable Link found with thyroid disease

 

134

7/17/13

Yes

Taiwanese Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased T3 in women

Increased subclinical hypothyroidism in women

Yes

154

12/4/14

Yes

S.U.N.Y. Albany

General New York State Population

Increased fT4 and T4 with age

 

155

12/10/14

Yes

Dutch Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased T4 in girls at high exposure

 

158

1/19/15

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased thyroid disease (males)

 

167

10/30/15

Yes

Canadian Researchers

General U.S. Population

Increased thyroid disruption in sensitive subpopulation of adults with high TPOAb and low iodine status

 

IX. LIVER FUNCTION

1

12/22/78

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Abnormal liver function

 

2

3/15/79

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Abnormal liver function

No

3

8/80

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased SGOT

 

4

1/28/81

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

Yes

Yes

7

5/28/82

No

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

[no elevated liver enzymes]

 

8

1/28/83

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

[no elevated liver enzymes]

 

12

1996

Yes

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Altered SGOT, GGT, and SGPT dependant on alcohol & obesity levels

Yes

13

8/5/96

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

Increased LDH

No

No

No

15

2000

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

[No elevated liver enzymes]

 

17

3/03

Yes

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased GGT

Increased AP

Increased ALT

Yes

Yes

Yes

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for liver disorders

 

24

8/06

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

[no liver associations found]

 

26

4/2/07

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased LDH

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased serum aspartate aminotransferase

 

27

6/07

Yes

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased bilirubin

Increased Alkaline phosphatase

Increased ALT/GGT

Yes

Yes

Yes

30

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased AST

Yes

Yes

32

10/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased GGT

Increased AST

Increased ALT

Yes

No

No

33

2008

No

WVU

C8 WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Increased AST/SGOT

 

40

3/09

Yes

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Decreased bilirubin

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

Increased ALP

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

53

12/15/09

Yes

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

Yes

No

71

1/30/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Altered bilirubin

Yes

103

6/12

No

US EPA

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT

Yes

120

10/26/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with liver disease]

 

158

1/19/15

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased non-hepatitis liver disease

 

172

3/15/16

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Decreased bilirubin

 

X. KIDNEY FUNCTION

13

8/5/96

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased kidney disease incidence

No

31

8/07

Yes

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

No

70

10/18/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased death from kidney cancer

Increased death from chronic kidney disease

Yes

Yes

76

8/26/11

Yes

WVU

General US Population

Increased chronic kidney disease

Yes

95

2/12

No

3M

3M Fluorochemical Workers

Increased chronic kidney disease

No

105

3/11/13

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Decreased eGFR (kidney function)

 

119

10/26/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with chronic kidney disease]

 

XI. HORMONE EFFECTS

2

3/15/79

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of endocrine/metabolic disorders

Yes

10

10/92

No

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estrodiol

Decreased free testosterone

Increased hemoglobin

Increased mean cellular volume

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

14

7/98

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estradiol in high exposure group

Elevated 17-HP

No

No

26

4/2/07

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased estradiol

Increased testosterone

 

160

3/26/15

Yes

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Aged 12-30)

Decreased SHBG

Yes

163

6/2/15

Yes

Tenn. Researchers

General U.K. Population (15 years Old)

Increased testosterone following prenatal exposures

 

173

8/16

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children Age 6-9)

Decreased testosterone in boys

 

XII. DEVELOPMENTAL/REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

6

9/81

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased birth defect incidence

Yes

9

12/84

No

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers - Males

CLAIMS of infertility among male workers - not pursued

 

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- Preterm labor

•- Infertility

 

21

11/04-

2/05

No

UCLA

WW/OH C8 Community

Decreased age to menopause

 

28

7/31/07

Yes

Johns Hopkins

General US Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased ponderal index

Decreased head circumference

Yes

Yes

Yes

29

8/16/07

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Decreased birth weight

Yes

35

11/4/08

Yes

Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

General Sapporo Japan Population

[no effects on birth weight]

 

38

1/28/09

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish population

Increased time to pregnancy

Yes

41

3/2/09

Yes

Univ. Denmark

General Danish population

Decreased normal sperm

Yes

45

819/09

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Increased birth defects

Yes

Yes

49

10/28/09

Yes

Univ. Alberta

General Alberta Canada Population

[no effect on birth weight]

 

50

11/09

Yes

Univ. Cincinnati

General OH/KY Population

Increased pubescent maturation in breasts of young girls

 

54

2009

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

[no effects on birth weight]

 

56

2010

Yes

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased dysfunctional labor

Yes

58

8/26/10

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Slightly increased risk of hospitalization for girls with highest prenatal PFOA exposure

No

60

9/13/10

Yes

Emory Univ.

General U.K. Population

Decreased time to menarche/puberty in girls

No

62

10/12/10

Yes

Danish Government

General Danish Population

Decreased baby weight in first year

Decreased baby body mass in first year

Yes

Yes

66

3/16/11

Yes

WVU

WW/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased time to menopause

Yes

61

5/2/11

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (children)

Increased time to reach puberty in girls

Yes

69

7/11

Yes

3M

General NC Population

No significant effects on sperm quality

 

72

5/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Slight increase in congenital heart defects

[No other birth outcome effects]

Yes

74

8/2/11

Yes

Korean Univ.

General S. Korean Population

[No association with birth weight]

 

94

3/15/12

Yes

Danish Univ.

General Greenland, Poland, Ukraine Population - Male

Slight increase in SHBG and TUNEL-positivity

[No other associations with sperm DNA fragmentation, apoptosis or reproductive hormones]

No

77

3/26/12

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Inconsistent decreased birth weight in highest exposure categories

Inconsistent reduced fetal growth

Large, imprecise associations with preterm birth

[No association with stillbirth, pregnancy-induced hypertension]

 

81

11/10/11

Yes

NIEHS

General Norwegian Population

Increased subfecundity (time to pregnancy) in parous but not nulliparous women

Yes

83-86, 88

12/5/11

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link with pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia

[No Probable Link with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, or birth defects]

 

92

2/3/12

Yes

Danish/Icelandic Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased overweight status in female

children at age 20

Yes

104

7/12

Yes

Shantou Univ (China)

General Chinese Population living near electronic waste recycling area

Decreased gestational age

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased Apgar scores

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

113

8/30/12

Yes

Emory Univ.

General British Population

Decreased birth weight

 

116

9/20/12

Yes

Korean University Researchers

General Korean Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased ponderal index

 

117

11/12

Yes

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Inst. Of Child Health and Human Health

General U.S. Population (Salt Lake City and San Francisco areas)

Increased endometriosis

 

127

1/28/13

Yes

Danish Univ.

General Danish Population (males 19-21 years old)

Decreased adjusted sperm concentration

Decreased total sperm count

Increased luteinizing hormone (LH)

Increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

 

133

7/9/13

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased pregnancy-induced hypertension

 

138

10/15/13

Yes

Danish Researchers

General Danish Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased time to menarche among daughters of exposed mothers

 

139

10/25/13

Yes

Danish Researchers

General Greenland/Poland/Ukraine Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased length of menstrual cycle

 

141/146

11/26/13 [2/14 published]

Yes

NIEHS

General U.S. Population (Women ages 20-65)

Decreased time to menopause

Yes

147

5/14

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased miscarriage risk at highest exposure levels

 

151

8/15/14

Yes

Shriver Nat. Inst. Of Child Health & Human Devel.

General U.S. Population

Decreased sperm with coiled tail

 

161

4/7/15

Yes

Danish Researchers

General Danish Population (Pregnant Women)

[No association between PFOA and miscarriage]

 

165

6/26/15

Yes

 

General Poland, Greenland, Ukraine Population (Infants) U.S. Population

Decreased birth weight

 

169

1/20/16

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population (Women 40+ years)

[No association with earlier age at menopause]

 

XIII. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS

2

3/15/79

No

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased mental/psychoneurotic disorders

Yes

34

10/08

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

[no effect on APGAR scores]

 

57

6/15/10

Yes

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population (12-15 Year-Olds)

Increased self-report of ADHD

Yes

63

11/9/10

Yes

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population (Children)

[no effect on behavioral/motor coordination at age 7]

 

64

10/1/11

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (5-18 Year-Olds)

Increased self-reported ADHD with medication in children at lower exposure levels with decreased level at highest exposure level

 

108

7/30/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

[No Probable Link found with neurodevelopmental disorders]

 

122

10/26/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with Parkinson's Disease]

 

123

10/24/12

Yes

Harvard Univ.

General U.S. Population (60-85-year olds)

Decreased self-reported cognitive limitation

Yes

131

7/13

Yes

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

[No adverse neurological associations found in children tested]

 

156

12/16/14

Yes

Univ. Cincinnati

General U.S. Population

Increased hypotonic categorization in infants

 

157

12/19/14

Yes

Univ. California (L.A.)

General Danish Population

[No increased risk of ADHD or autism]

 

166

10/13/15

Yes

 

General Population (Infants at 6 and 18 months)

Decreased neurodevelopment scores in females at 6 months

 

170

1/28/16

Yes

Univ. Cincinnati

General Cincinnati, Ohio Population (Mother-Child Pairs)

[No association with executive function deficits in school-age children]

 

XIV. PANCREATIC EFFECTS

15

2000

Yes

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased CCK

No

19

8/04

Yes

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- acute pancreatitis

•- pancreatitis

 

43

4/7/09

Yes

Danish Cancer Society

General Danish Population

Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in highest exposure group

No

XV. OSTEOARTHRITIS EFFECTS

68

6/27/11

Yes

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased osteoarthritis

Yes

121

10/26/12

No

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with osteoarthritis]

 

128

2/8/13

Yes

Yale

General US Population (20-84 year olds)

Increased osteoarthritis in women

Yes

153

2/15

Yes

UK Researchers

General UK Population

Reduced parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women

 

164

6/9/15

Yes

Ohio Researchers

General U.S. Population

Increased osteoporosis in women