PFOA HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS DATA - CHRONOLOGICAL

TAB

DATE

PUBLISHED?

SPONSOR

POPULATION

ASSOCIATION

STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT?

1

12/22/78

No [DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"]

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Abnormal liver function

2

3/15/79

No [DuPont Internal Report - "Chambers Works Fluorosulfactant Study"]

DuPont

DuPont NJ Fluoroproducts Workers

Increased incidence of allergic/endocrine/metabolic disorders

Increased mental and psychoneurotic disorders

Increased skin & cellular tissue disorders

Abnormal liver function

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

2A

2/80

No [Schuman, L. M. & Mandel, J. S., "An Epidemiologic Mortality Study of Employees at the Chemolite Plant" (Internal 3M report)]

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased cancer of following types among males employed more than 6 months in Chemical Division:

- Esophogus

- Larynx

- Skin

- Prostate

- Testis

No

3

8/80

Yes - [Ubel, F.A., et al., "Health status of plant workers exposed to flurochemicals - a preliminary report," 41 Amer. Indus. Hygiene Assoc. J. 384-89 (1980)]

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased SGOT

[no increased mortality incidence]

4

1/28/81

No [DuPont Internal Report - "Liver Function Study of Washington Works Employees Exposed to C-8"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

Yes

Yes

5

3/30/81

No [DuPont Internal Report - "Study of Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates at Washington Works"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased MI incidence among foremen

Yes

6

9/81

No [DuPont Internal Reports Relating to: "Study of Pregnancy Outcome in Washington Works Employees"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased birth defect incidence

Yes

7

5/28/82

No [3M Internal Report - "Fluorochemical Control Study"]

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

[no elevated liver enzymes]

8

1/28/83

No [DuPont Internal Report - "Update of 1/28/81 Liver Function Study of Washington Works Employees Exposed to C-8"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

[no elevated liver enzymes/blood pressure]

9

12/84

No [DuPont Internal Reports Relating to: "Allegation of Significant Adverse Reaction - Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Section 8(c)"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers - Males

CLAIMS of infertility among male workers - not pursued

10

10/92

No [Ph.D. Thesis: Gilliland, F., "Fluorocarbons and Human Health: Studies in an Occupational Cohort"]

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estrodiol

Decreased free testosterone

Increased TSH

Increased prolactin (in moderate drinkers)

Increased hemoglobin

Increased mean cellular volume

Increased leukocyte counts

Increased prostate cancer deaths in long exposure group

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

11

9/93

Yes [Gilliland, F.D. & Mandel, J.S., "Mortality Among Employees of a Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Plant," 35 J.O.E.M. (9) 950-54 (Sept. 1993)]

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer deaths in high exposure group

Yes

12

1996

Yes [Gilliland, F.D. & Mandel, J.S., "Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Hepatic Enzymes, Lipoproteins, and Cholesterol: A Study of Occupationally Exposed Men," 29 Amer. J. Indus. Med. 560-68 (1996)]

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Altered SGOT, SGPT, GGT, HDL dependant on alcohol & obesity levels

Yes

13

8/5/96

No [DuPont Internal Report - "C-8 Study"]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased SGOT

Increased AP

Increased LDH

Increased kidney disease incidence

No

No

No

No

14

7/98

Yes [Olsen, G.W., et al., "An Epidemiologic Investigation of Reproductive Hormones in Men With Occupational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid," 40 J.O.E.M. (7) 614-22 (July 1998)]

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased estradiol in high exposure group

Increased 17-HP

No

No

15

2000

Yes [Olsen, G.W., et al., "Plasma Cholecystokinin and Hepatic Enzymes, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production Workers," 23 Drug & Chem. Toxicol. (4) 603-20 (2000)]

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased CCK

[No elevated liver enzymes]

Yes

16

4/26/01

No [Univ. Minn. Internal Report - "Mortality Study of Workers Employed at the 3M Cottage Grove Facility"]

Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased death from cerebrovascular disease

[no cancer death excess using redefined exposure categories]

Yes

17

3/03

Yes [Olsen, G.W., et al., "Epidemiologic Assessment of Worker Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Concentrations and Medical Surveillance Examinations," 45 J.O.E.M. (3) 260-70 (March 2003)]

3M

3M Belgium/Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased triglycerides

Increased GGT

Increased AP

Increased ALT

Increased T3

Increased cholesterol

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

18

2003

Yes [Alexander, B.H., et al., "Mortality of employees of a perfluorooctanesulphonyl fluoride manufacturing facility," 60 J. Occup. Environ. Med. 722-29 (2003)]

Univ. Minn.

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased bladder cancer death

Increased liver cancer deaths

Yes

No

19

8/04

Yes [Olsen, G.W., et al., "Analysis of Episodes of Care in a Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride Production Facility," 46 J. Occup. Environ. Med. (8) (Aug. 2004)]

3M

3M Alabama Fluorochemical Workers

Increased episodes of care for:

•- Malignant colon neoplasm

•- Malignant rectum neoplasm

•- Malignant neoplasm of lower respiratory tract

•- Malignant skin melanoma

•- Malignant prostate neoplasm

•- Cholelithiasis

•- Acute pancreatitis

•- Preterm labor

•- Benign colonic polyps

•- Diabetes

•- Liver disorders

•- Biliary tract disorders

•- Urinary tract disorders/cystitis

•- Infertility

•- Disorders of lipid metabolism

•- Hypertension

•- Coronary disease/cardiac arrest

•- Pancreatitis

20

9/7/04

No [MIC Letter to USEPA Regarding Mitini Meeting Data]

Mitini (Italy)

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

Yes

Yes

90

10/04

No [Dahlgren, J., et al., "Prevalence and Incidence of Cancer in Populations Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)," Arch. Environ. Health [accepted for publication 10/04 but never published]

UCLA

WV/OH C8 Community

DuPont WV C8 Workers

Increased self-reported prevalence for:

•- Uterine/cervical cancer

•- Multiple myeloma

•- Lung cancer

•- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

•- Bladder Cancer

•- Colon/rectal cancer

Increased bladder cancer

Increased prostate cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

21

11/04-

2/05

No [Dahlgren, J., et al, Meeting Slides/Abstracts]

UCLA

WW/OH C8 Community

DuPont WW C8 workers

Increased self-reported cervical/uterine cancer

Increased self-reported prostate cancer

Increased self-reported breast cancer

Decreased age to menopause

Increased prostate cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

22

1/11/05

No [DuPont Press Releases/Slides Regarding First-Phase Worker Health Study Results Examining PFOA Exposure]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

Increased uric acid

Increased iron

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

23

3/1/06

No [WV Dept. Health Report: "Examination of Community Concerns about Water Contamination with Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Related Chemicals Using Population-based Cancer Registry Data"]

WV Dept. Health

Wood/Mason Cty WV General Population

Increased prostate cancer incidence

Increased leukemia incidence

Increased non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence

Increased cutaneous melanoma

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

24

8/06

Yes [Emmett, E.A., et al., "Community Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Levels and Certain Health Parameters," 48 J.O.E.M. (8) 771-779 (Aug. 2006)]

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased monocyte count

Increased cholesterol

[no other liver/lipid/thyroid associations found]

Yes

No

25

11/06

Yes [LeMasters, G.K., et al., "Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review amd Meta-analysis of 32 Studies," 48 J.O.E.M. (11) 1189-1202 (Nov. 2006)]

Univ. Cincinnati

Firefighters [PFOA not directly measured]

Increased risk of multiple myeloma

Increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Increased risk of prostate cancer

Increased risk of testicular cancer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

26

4/2/07

No [DuPont Letters to USEPA Supplementing Phase I Worker Study Results]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased LDH

Increased calcium

Increased potassium

Increased estradiol

Increased testosterone

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased serum aspartate aminotransferase

27

6/07

Yes [Olsen, G.W. & Zobel, L.R., "Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical workers," Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health (doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0213-0) (on-line 6/07)]

3M

3M Alabama/Belgium/

Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Decreased HDL

Increased triglycerides

Decreased free T4

Increased T3

Decreased bilirubin

Increased Alkaline phosphatase

Increased ALT/GGT

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

28

7/31/07

Yes [Apelberg, B.J., et al., "Cord Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Relation to Weight and Size at Birth," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.10334) (on-line July 31, 2007)]

Johns Hopkins

General US Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased ponderal index

Decreased head circumference

Yes

Yes

Yes

29

8/16/07

Yes [Fei, C., et al., "Perfluorinated Chemicals and Fetal Growth: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort," Eniron. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.10506 (on-line Aug. 16, 2007)]

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Decreased birth weight

Yes

30

8/07

Yes [Sakr, C.J., et al., "Longitudinal Study of Serum Lipids and Liver Enzymes in Workers With Occupational Exposure to Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate," 49 J.O.E.M. (8) 872-79 (Aug. 2007)]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Decreased total bilirubin

Increased AST

Yes

Yes

Yes

31

8/07

Yes [Leonard, R.C., et al., "Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers," J. Ann. Epidem. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.06.011) (on-line Aug. 2007)]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD mortality

Increased diabetes mortality

Increased death from kidney cancer

No

Yes

No

32

10/07

Yes [Sakr, C.J., et al., "Cross-Sectional Study of Lipids and Liver Enzymes Related to a Serum Biomarker of Exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as Part of a General Health Survey in a Cohort of Occupationally Exposed Workers," 49 J.O.E.M. (10) 1086-96 (Oct. 2007)]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased VLDL

Increased GGT

Increased AST

Increased ALT

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

33

2008

No [WVU Slides From On-Line Presentation]

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased CRP

Decreased IG

Increased ALT

Increased AST/SGOT

Increased total cholesterol-children

Increased free TH

34

10/08

Yes [Fei, C., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Maternally Reported Developmental Milestones in Infancy," 116 Environ. Health Persp. (10) 1391-95 (Oct. 2008)]

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

[no effects on APGAR scores]

35

11/4/08

Yes [Washino, N., et al., "Correlations Between Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Reduced Fetal Growth," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.11681) (on-line Nov. 4, 2008)]

Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

General Sapporo Japan Population

[no effects on birth weight]

36

12/29/08

Yes [Lin, C-Y, et al., "Association Among Serum Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults," Diabetes Care (on-line Dec. 28, 2008)]

Taiwan Hospital

General US Population

Increased B cell function

(associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome)

Yes

37

2008

Yes [Anderson-Mahoney, P., et al., "Self-Reported Health Effects Among Community Residents Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate," 18 New Solutions (2) 129-43 (2008)]

Plaintiffs

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased self reports of angina

Increased self reports of MI

Increased self reports of stroke

Increased self reports of respiratory effects

38

1/28/09

Yes [Fei., C., et al., "Maternal levels of perfluorinated chemicals and subfecundity," 1 Human Repro. (1) 1-6 (2009)]

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Increased time to pregnancy

Yes

39

2/09

Yes [Bloom, M.S., et al., "Exploratory assessment of perfluorinated compounds and human thyroid function," Physiol. Behav. (doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.02.005) (on-line Feb. 2009)]

SUNY

General New York Population - Fishermen

[no effects on thyroid function]

40

3/09

Yes [Costa, G., et al., "Thirty Years of Medical Surveillance in Perfluorooctanoic Acid Production Workers," 51 J.O.E.M. (3) 1-9 (March 2009)]

Mitini

Mitini Italian PFOA Workers

Increased total cholesterol

Increased uric acid

Decreased bilirubin

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

Increased ALP

Increased globulins

Increased IgA

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

41

3/2/09

Yes [Nordstrom, U., et al., "Do Perfluoroalkyl Compounds Impair Human Semen Quality?" Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0800517) (on-line March 2, 2009)]

Univ. Denmark

General Danish Population

Decreased normal sperm

Yes

42

3/16/09

No [C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "PFOA and immune biomarkers in adults exposed to PFOA in drinking water in the mid Ohio Valley"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased lgA

Decreased IgE (females)

Increased ANA

Decreased CRP

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

43

4/7/09

Yes [Eriksen, K.T., et al., "Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctanesulfonate Plasma Levels and Risk of Cancer in the General Danish Population," 101 J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 605-609 (2009)]

Danish Cancer Society

General Danish Population

Increased risk of pancreatic cancer in highest exposure group

No

44

6/23/09

Yes [Sakr, C.J., et al., "Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Study among Workers with Occupational Exposure to Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041582) (on-line June 24, 2009)]

DuPont

DuPont WV PFOA Workers

Increased IHD deaths at longest exposure categories

No

45

8/19/09

Yes [Stein, C.R., et al., "Serum Levels of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Pregnancy Outcome," Amer. J. Epidem. (doi:10.1093/aje/kwp212) (on-line Aug. 12, 2009)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Increased birth defects

Yes

Yes

46

9/09

Yes [MacNeil, J., et al., "A cross-sectional analysis of type II diabetes in a community with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Environ. Research (doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.08.002) (on-line Sept. 2009)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[no association with Type II diabetes]

47

10/21/09

Yes [Steenland, K., et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate With Serum Lipids Among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant," Amer. J. Epidem. (doi:10.1093/aje/kwp279) (on-line Oct. 21, 2009)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Adults)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased non-HDL

Increased triglycerides

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

48

10/22/09

Yes [Steenland, K., et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with Uric Acid Among Adults with Elevated Community Exposure to PFOA," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0900940) (on-line Oct. 22, 2009)]

C-8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Adults)

Increased uric acid

Yes

49

10/28/09

Yes [Hamm, M.P., et al., "Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth," J. Exposure Sci. & Environ. Epidem. 1-9 (2009)]

Univ. Alberta

General Alberta Canada Population

[no effect on birth weight]

50

11/09

Yes [Pinney, S.M., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Pubertal Maturation in Young Girls," 20 J. Epidem. (6) S80 (Nov. 2009)] [ABSTRACT ONLY]

Univ. Cincinnati

General OH/KY Population

Increased pubescent maturation in breasts of young girls

51

11/09

Yes [Lundin, J.I., et al., "Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production and Occupational Mortality," 20 J. Epidem. (6) 921-28 (Nov. 2009)]

3M/Univ. Minn.

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased prostate cancer death

Increased cerebrovascular disease death

Increased diabetes death

Yes

Yes

Yes

52

11/2/09

Yes [Nelson, J.W., et al., "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cholesterol, Body Weight, and Insulin Resistance in the General U.S. Population," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0901165) (online Nov. 2, 2009)]

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased total cholesterol

Increased non-HDL cholesterol

Yes

Yes

53

12/15/09

Yes [Lin, C-Y, et al., "Investigation of the Associations Between Low-Dose Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Liver Enzymes in US Adults," Amer. J. Gastroenterology (doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.707) (online Dec. 15, 2009)]

Taiwan Hospital

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT

Increased GGT

Yes

No

54

2009

Yes [Nolan, L.A., et al., "The relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking water," 27 Repro. Toxicol. 231-38 (2009)]

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

[no effects on birth weight]

55

1/20/10

Yes [Melzer, D., et al., "Association Between Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Thyroid Disease in the NHANES Study," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0901584) (on-line Jan. 20, 2010)]

Peninsula Medical School

General U.S. Population

Increased reported thyroid disease in women

Increased reported thyroid disease in men

Yes

No

56

2010

Yes [Nolan, L.A., et al., "Congenital Anomolies, Labor/Delivery Complications, Maternal Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water," (published 2010)]

Univ. Penn.

Little Hocking OH Water Customers

Increased anemia

Increased dysfunctional labor

Yes

Yes

57

6/15/10

Yes [Hoffman, K., et al., "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children Aged 12-15 Years," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.1001898) (on-line June 15, 2010)]

Boston Univ.

General U.S. Population (12-15 Year-Olds)

Increased self report of ADHD

Yes

58

8/26/10

Yes [Fei, C., et al., "Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood," 110 Environ. Research 773-77 (2010)]

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population

Slightly increased risk of hospitalization for girls with highest prenatal PFOA exposure

No

59

9/7/10

Yes [Frisbee, S.J., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid, Perfluorooctanesulfonate, and Serum Lipids in Children and Adolescents," 164 Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. (9) 860-69 (Sept. 2010)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased HDL

Yes

Yes

No

60

9/13/10

Yes [Christensen, K.Y., et al., "Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals during pregnancy is not associated with offspring age at menarche in a contemporary British cohort," 37 Environ. Int'l 129-35 (2011)]

Emory Univ.

General U.K. Population

Decreased time to menarche/puberty in girls

No

61

9/30/10 (Status Report) -published on-line 5/2/11, published final 10/1/11

Yes [Lopez-Espinosa, M-J, et al., "Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with Age of Puberty among Children Living near a Chemical Plant," Environ. Sci. & Technol. (doi:10.1021/es1038694) (on-line May 2, 2011) - FINAL 10/1/11

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Increased time to reach puberty in girls

Yes

62

10/12/10

Yes [Anderson, C.S., et al., "Prenatal Exposures to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Anthropometric Measures in Infancy," 172 Amer. J. Epidem. (11) 1230-37 (Oct. 2010)]

Danish Government

General Danish Population

Decreased baby weight in first year

Decreased baby body mass in first year

Yes

Yes

63

11/9/10

Yes [Fei, C. & Olsen, J., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Behavioral or Coordination Problems at Age 7," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.1002026) (on-line Nov. 9, 2010)]

Univ. Cal.

General Danish Population (Children)

[no effect on behavioral/motor coordination at age 7]

64

6/10/11 online, final 10/1/11

Yes [Stein, C.R. & Savitz, D.A., "Serum Perfluorinated Compound Concentration and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years," Environ. Health Persp. (doi:10.1289/ehp.1003538) (on-line June 10, 2011)] - FINAL published 10/1/11

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (15-18 Year-Olds)

Increased self-reported ADHD with medication at lower exposure levels with decrease at highest exposure level

65

2/8/11

Yes [Chan, E., et al., "Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women," J. Eviron. Research (doi:10.1016/j.envres.2011.01.011) (on-line Feb. 2011)]

Univ. Alberta

General Alberta Canada Population

[no effect on hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women]

66

3/16/11

Yes [Knox, S.S., et al., "Implications of Early Menopause in Women Exposed to Perfluorocarbons," 96 J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (6) (doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2401) (online March 16, 2011)]

WVU

WW/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased time to menopause

Yes

67

4/19/11

Yes [Wang, I-Jen, et al., "The effect of prenatal perfluorinated chemicals exposures on pediatric atopy," Environ. Res. (doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.04.006) (online May 2011)

Taiwan Hospital

General Taiwan Population (Children)

Increased cord blood IgE levels

Yes

68

6/27/11

Yes [Innes, K.E., et al., "Association of Osteoarthritis With Serum Levels of Environmental Contaminants Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in a Large Appalachian Population," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr107) (online June 27, 2011)

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased osteoarthritis

Yes

69

7/11

Yes [Raymer, J.H., et al., "Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and their associations with human semen quality measurements," Repro. Toxicol. (doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.05.024) (online 7/11)

3M

General NC Population

[No significant effects on sperm quality]

70

7/15/11 Status Report [Published 10/18/12]

Yes [Steenland, K. & Woskie, S., "Cohort Mortality Study of Workers Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kws171) (on-line 10/18/12)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased death from kidney cancer

Increased death from chronic kidney disease

Increased death from mesothelioma

Yes

Yes

Yes

72

7/15/11 [Status Report] 5/12 [publication]

Yes [Savitz, D. A., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome in a Highly Exposed Community," 23 (3) Epidem. 1-7 (May 2012)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased preeclampsia

Slight increase in congenital heart defects

[No other birth outcome associations]

Yes

73

8/1/11

Yes [Knox, S.S., et al., "Perfluorocarbon exposure, gender and thyroid function in the C8 Health Project," 36 (4) J. Toxicol. Sci. 403-410 (Aug. 2011)]

WVU

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased serum thyroxine

Decreased T3

Yes

Yes

74

8/2/11

Yes [Kim, S., et al., "Trans-Placental Transfer of Thirteen Perfluorinated Compounds and Relations with Fetal Thyroid Hormones," Environ. Health Persp. ("just accepted manuscript") (Aug. 2, 2011)

Korean Univ.

General S. Korean Population

Reduced thyroid hormone levels

[No association with birth weight]

No

75

8/11/01 [Status Report] 3/27/12 [Publication]

Yes [Lopez-Espinosa, M-J., et al., "Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104370) (on-line March 27, 2012)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population - Children (Age 1-18)

Increased thyroid disease

76

8/26/11

Yes [Shankar, A. & Ducatman, A., "Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Chronic Kidney Disease in US Adults," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr171) (Aug. 26, 2011)]

WVU

General US Population

Increased chronic kidney disease

Yes

77

9/23/11 [Status Report] 3/26/12 [Publication]

Yes [Savitz, D., et al., "Relationship of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure to Pregnancy Outcome Based on Birth Records in the Mid-Ohio Valley," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104752) (on-line March 26, 2012)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Inconsistent decreased birth weight at highest exposure levels

Inconsistent reduced fetal growth

Large, imprecise associations with early preterm birth

[No association with stillbirth, pregnancy-induced hypertension]

78

9/11

Yes [Shankar, A., Xiao, J., & Ducatman, A., "Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and elevated serum uric acid in US adults," 3 Clin. Epidem. 251-58 (Sept. 2011)]

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased uric acid

Yes

79

10/6/11

Yes [Bonefeld-Jorgensen, E. C., et al., "Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in Greenland Inuit: A case control study," 10:88 Environ. Health 2011 (doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-88) (on-line 10/6/11)

Aarhaus Univ. (Denmark)

General Greenlandic Inuit Population

Increased risk of breast cancer

Yes (combined PFCs)

80

10/11

Yes [Okada, E., et al., "Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and relationship with allergies and infectious diseases in infants," Environ. Research (doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.10.003) (on-line 10/11)

Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

General Sapparo Japan Population (Infants)

Decreased IgE (female infants)

[No association with food allergy, eczema, wheezing, or otitis media in first 18 months]

Yes

81

11/10/11

Yes [Whitworth, K.W., et al., "Perfluorinated Compounds and Subfecundity in Pregnant Women," 23 (2) Epidem. 1-7 (March 2012) (doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31823b5031) (online 11/10/11)

NIEHS

General Norwegian Population

Increased subfecundity in parous but not nulliparous women

Yes

82

11/17/11

Yes [Lin, C-L, et al., "Associations between Levels of Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Adiponectin in a Young Hypertension Cohort in Taiwan," Environ. Sci. & Tech. (dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201964x) (online 11/17/11)

Taiwan Hospital

General Taiwanese Population (ages 12-30)

No associations found with glucose homeostasis, adiponectin level, lipid profile, or inflammatory markers and PFOA blood levels below average US PFOA blood levels (only 2.39 ppb average PFOA serum level in test group)

83

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Preeclampsia"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Probable Link found with pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia

84

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Miscarriage and Stillbirths"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with miscarriage or stillbirths]

85

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Preterm Birth and Low Birthweight"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with preterm birth or low birthweight]

86

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Birth Defects"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with birth defects]

87

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "PFOA and adult thyroid disease in the mid-Ohio valley"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population (age 20+)

Increased thyroid disease occurrence in adults

Yes (for women)

88

12/5/11

No [C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "Prospective study of reproductive health outcomes in the mid-Ohio valley"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased pregnancy-induced hypertension

["Little evidence" of associations with miscarriage, preterm birth, and low birthweight]

No

89

12/5/11 [Status Report] 7/13 [Publication]

Yes [Fitz-Simon, N., et al., "Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid," 24 Epidem. (4) 1-8 (July 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Decreased LDL associated with decreased PFOA

Yes

91

1/25/12

Yes [Grandjean, P., et al., "Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds," 307 (4) J.A.M.A. 391-97 (Jan. 25, 2012)]

Harvard Univ.

General Faroe Islands Population (Children)

Decreased humoral immune response to childhood immunizations

Yes

71

1/30/12 [Status Report - 7/15/11]

Yes [Gallo, V., et al., "Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104436) (on-line Jan. 30, 2012)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Altered bilirubin

Yes

92

2/3/12

Yes [Halldorsson, T.I., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate and Risk of Overweight at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104034) (on-line Feb. 3, 2012)]

Danish/Icelandic Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased overweight status in female children at age 20

Yes

95

2/12

No [Butenhoff, J.L., et al., "Perflurooctanoate, Perfluorooctanesulfonate, and Chronic Kidney Disease: Clearance Comes Before Causation," SOT 2012 Poster Abstract (Feb. 2012)]

3M

3M Fluorochemical Workers

Increased chronic kidney disease

No

96

2/12 SOT Poster abstract [8/12 Published]

Yes [Olsen, G.W., et al., "Longitudinal Assessment of Lipid and Hepatic Clinical Parameters in Workers Involved With the Demolition of Perfluoroalkyl Manufacturing Facilities," 54 (8) J.O.E.M. 974-83 (Aug. 2012)]

3M

3M Fluorochemical Demolition Workers (at baseline exposures)

Increased HDL

[No significant positive associations with non-HDL cholesterol and hepatic clinical chemistries]

Yes

97

2/12

No [Nygaard, U.C., et al., "Perfluorinated compounds and immune health outcomes in 3-year-old children," SOT 2012 Poster Abstract (Feb. 2012)]

Norwegian Inst. Pub. health

General Norwegian Population - Children

Decreased response to rubella vaccinations

93

3/12

Yes [Butenhoff, J.L., et al., "Distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate into human plasma lipoprotein fractions," Toxicol. Lett. (doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.02.013) (online 3/12)

3M

General US Population

Partitioning of PFOA to lipoprotein fraction of blood not support reverse causality for lipid associations

94

3/15/12

Yes [Specht, I.O., et al., "Sperm DNA integrity in relation to exposure to environmental perfluoroalkyl substances - A study of spouses of pregnant women in three geographical regions," Reprod. Toxicol. (on-line March 15, 2012)]

Danish Univ.

General Greenland, Poland, Ukraine Population - Male

Slight increase in SHBG and TUNEL-positivity

[No other associations with sperm DNA fragmentation, apoptosis or reproductive hormones]

No

98

4/13/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Diabetes"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with adult Type II diabetes]

99

4/15/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Cancer"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with testicular cancer

Probable Link found with kidney cancer

[No Probable Link found with other cancers]

Yes

Yes

100

5/10/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Status Report: "Infections, obesity and clinical markers in children in relation to PFOA serum level during pregnancy in mothers in the Mid-Ohio Valley"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No association between prenatal exposure and risk of childhood infections or asthma since birth]

[No association between prenatal exposure and increased risk of obesity or metabolic syndrome]

Increased LDL and decreased insulin associated with prenatal exposure

No

101

5/31/12

Yes [Min, J-Y., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure is associated with elevated homocysteine and hypertension in US adults," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2011-100288) (on-line May 31, 2012)]

Korean Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased homocysteine and systolic blood pressure/hypertension

Yes

102

6/12

No [Bloom, M., et al., "Exposure to Persistent Organohalogen Pollutants is Associated With Thyroid Function Among Older Residents of Upper Hudson River Communities" (ISEE 2012 Abstract)]

Univ. Albany

General Upper Hudson River NY Population

Increased T4

103

6/12

No [Christensen, K., et al., "Method to Assess Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals and Liver Disease: NHANES 2003-2006" (ISEE 2012 Abstract)]

US EPA

General U.S. Population

Increased ALT by PFC class

Yes

104

7/12

Yes [Wu, K., et al., "Association between maternal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from electronic waste recycling and neonatal health outcomes," 48 Environ. Int'l 1-8 (2012)]

Shantou Univ. (China)

General Chinese Population living near electronic waste recycling area

Decreased gestational age

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased Apgar scores

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

105

7/25/11 [Status Report] 3/11/13 [Publication]

Yes [Watkins, D.J., et al., "Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function Among Children and Adolescents Living Near a Chemical Plant," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205838) (On-line March 11, 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

Decreased eGFR (kidney function)

106

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Thyroid Disease"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with thyroid disease

107

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Autoimmune Disease"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with ulcerative colitis

No Probable Link found with:

-Rheumatoid arthritis

- Lupus

- Type 1 diabetes

- Crohn's disease

- Multiple sclerosis

108

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

No Probable Link found with neurodevelopmental disorders in children

109

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for Non-infectious Disease (Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - COPD)"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

No Probable Link found with:

•- Asthma

•- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

110

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Stroke"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

No Probable Link found with stroke

111

7/30/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation of Infectious Disease"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

No Probable Link found with common infectious disease

112

8/3/12

Yes [Wang, J., et al., "Association of perfluorooctanoic acid with HDL cholesterol and circulating miR-26b and miR-199-3p in workers of a fluorochemical plant and nearby residents," Env. Science & Techn. (doi: 10.1021/es3009606q) (on-line Aug. 3, 2012)]

Chinese Researchers

Chinese Fluorochemical Workers and Nearby Chinese Population

Decreased HDL-C

Increased miR-26b

Increased miR-199a-3p

Yes

113

8/30/12

Yes [Maisonet, M., et al., "Maternal Concentrations of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds during Pregnancy and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in British Girls," Environ. Health Perspec. (dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003096) (on-line Aug. 30, 2012)]

Emory Univ.

General British Population

Decreased birth weight

114

9/3/12

Yes [Shankar, A., Xiao, J., & Ducatman, A., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease in US Adults," Arch. Intern. Med. (doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3393) (on-line Sept. 3, 2012)]

WVU

General U.S. Population

Increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Increased peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Yes

Yes

115

8/12

No [C-8 Science Panel, "Gene expression and epigenetic modification in lipid regulating genes in relation to PFOA and PFOS," (ISEE August 2012 Presentation Slides)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Decreased NR1HR (Liver receptor B; LXRB) transcript levels (gene involved in lipid metabolism)

116

9/20/12

Yes [Lee, Y.J., et al., "Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl compounds in maternal and umbilical cord sera and birth outcomes in Korea," Chemosphere (doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.08.035) (on-line Sept. 20, 2012)]

Korean Researchers

General Korean Population

Decreased birth weight

Decreased birth length

Decreased ponderal index

117

11/12

Yes [Louis, G. M.B., et al., "Perfluorochemicals and Endometriosis: The ENDO Study," 23 Epidem. (6) 1-7 (Nov. 2012)]

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Inst. Of Child Health and Human Health

General U.S. Population (Salt Lake City and San Francisco areas)

Increased endometriosis

118

10/26/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for heart disease (including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease)"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Probable Link found with hypercholesterolemia

[No Probable Link found with hypertension]

[No Probable Link found with coronary artery disease]

119

10/29/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for Chronic Kidney Disease"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with chronic kidney disease]

120

10/29/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for Liver Diseases"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with liver disease]

121

10/29/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for Osteoarthritis"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with osteoarthritis]

122

10/29/12

No [C-8 Science Panel Probable Link Report: "Probable Link Evaluation for Parkinson's Disease"]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

[No Probable Link found with Parkinson's Disease]

123

10/24/12

Yes [Power, M.C., et al., "Cross-Sectional Association between Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cognitive Limitation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey," 40 Neuroepidem. J. (2), 125-132 (2013)]

Harvard Univ.

General U.S. Population (aged 60-85 years old)

Decreased self-reported cognitive limitation

Yes

124

1/8/13

Yes [Dong, G-H, et al., "Serum Polyfluoroalkyl Concentrations, Asthma Outcomes, and Immunological Markers in a Case-Control Study of Taiwanese Children," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205351) (on-line Jan. 8, 2013)]

China Med. Univ.

General Northern Taiwan Population (10-15 year olds)

Increased asthma

Yes

125

1/8/13

Yes [Vieira, V. M., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Cancer Outcomes in a Contaminated Community: A Geographic Analysis," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205829) (on-line Jan. 8, 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased testicular cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

Increased Prostate cancer

Increased ovarian cancer

126

1/25/13

Yes [Granum, B., et al., "Pre-natal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may be associated with altered vaccine antibody levels and immune-related health outcomes in early childhood," J. Immunotoxicol., Early Online (doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2012.755580) (on-line Jan. 25, 2013)]

Norwegian Inst Pub. Health.

General Norwegian Population

Decreased antibody levels to rubella vaccine

Increased incidence of common colds in children under 3

Increased incidence of gastroenteritis in children under 3

127

1/28/13

Yes [Vested, A., et al., "Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205118) (on-line Jan. 28, 2013)]

Danish Univ.

General Danish Population (males aged 19-21)

Decreased adjusted sperm concentration

Decreased total sperm count

Increased luteinizing hormone (LH)

Increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

128

2/8/13

Yes [Uhl, S.A., et al., "Association of Osteoarthritis with Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in NHANES 2003-2008," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205673) (on-line Feb. 8, 2013)]

Yale Sch. Forestry & Environ. Stud.

General US Population (Age 2-84 years old)

Increased osteoarthritis in women

Yes

129

2/18/13

Yes [Erikson, K.T., et al., "Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population," PLoS ONE 8(2) (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone,0056969) (on-line Feb. 18, 2013)]

Danish Cancer Soc.

General Danish Population (50-65 years old)

Increased total cholesterol

Yes

130

4/3/13

Yes [Geiger, S.D., et al., "Positive Association Between Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Hyperuricemia in Children," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kws392) (on-line April 3, 2013)]

Univ. Wisconsin

General U.S. Population (Children)

Increased hyperuricemia

Yes

131

7/13

Yes [Stein, C.R., et al., "Perfluorooctanoate and Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children," 24 Epidem. (4) 1-10 (July 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population (Children)

[No adverse neurological associations in children tested]

132

6/4/13

Yes [Steenland, K., et al., "Ulcerative Colitis and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Highly Exposed Population of Community Residents and Workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206449) (on-line June 4, 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population and DuPont WV PFOA Employees

Increased ulcerative colitis

Yes

133

7/9/13

Yes [Darow, L. A., Stein, C.R., & Steenland, K., "Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005-2010," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372) (on-line July 9, 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased pregnancy-induced hypertension

[No increased preterm birth, low birth weight]

134

7/17/13

Yes [Wen, L-L, et al., "Association Between Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Thyroid Function in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010," J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. (doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1282) (on-line July 17, 2013)]

Taiwanese Univ.

General U.S. Population

Increased T3 in women

Increased subclinical hypothyroidism in women

Yes

135

7/4/13

Yes [Consonni, D., et al., "Cancer Risk Among Tetrafluoroethylene Synthesis and Polymerization Workers," Am. J. Epidem. (doi: 10.1093/aje/kws588) (on-line July 4, 2013)]

Italian Researchers

U.S./European Fluorochemical Workers (Including DuPont WV PFOA Workers)

Increased liver cancer

Increased kidney cancer

Increased leukemia

136

9/5/13 [FINAL - 12/13]

Yes [Barry, V., Winquist, A., & Steenland, K., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposures and Incident Cancers Among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant," 121 Environ. Health Perspec . 1313-1318 (Dec. 2013) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306615) (on-line Sept. 5, 2013)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population/DuPont PFOA WV Workers

Increased kidney cancer

Increased testicular cancer

Yes

Yes

137

10/14/13

Yes [Simpson, C, et al., "Relation between perfluorooctanic acid exposure and strokes in a large cohort living near a chemical plant," J. Environ. Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2013.10.002) (on-line 10/13)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH C8 Settlement Population

Increased stroke incidence, except for highest exposure levels

Yes

138

10/15/13

Yes [Kristensen, S.L., et al., Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction," Human Reprod. (doi: 10.1093/humrep/det382) (on-line 10/15/13)]

Danish Researchers

General Danish Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased delay to menarche among daughters born to exposed mothers

139

10/25/13

Yes [Lyngso, J., et al., "Menstrual cycle characteristics in fertile women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine exposed to perfluorinated chemicals: a cross-sectional study," Human Reprod. (doi:10.1093/humrep/det390) (on-line 10/25/13)]

Danish Researchers

General Greenland/Poland/Ukraine Population (Pregnant Women)

Increased length of menstrual cycles

140

11/13

Yes [Geiger, S.D., et al., "The association between PFOA, PFOS and serum lipid levels," Chemosphere (on-line 11/13)

WVU and Other Researchers

General U.S. Population (12-18 year olds)

Increased total cholesterol and LDL-C

Yes

141

11/26/13

Yes [Taylor, K.W., et al., "Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707) (on-line 11/26/13)]

NIEHS

General U.S. Population (Women ages 20-65)

Decreased time to menopause

Yes

142

11/13

Yes [Karnes, C., Winquist, A., & Steenland, K, "Incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort with substantial exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid," Environ. Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2013.11.003) (on-line 11/13)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

[No association with increased type II diabetes]

143

11/13

Yes [Lind, L., et al., "Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and prevalent diabetes in the elderly," Diabetologia (doi: 10.1007/a00125-013-3126-3) (on-line 11/13)

Swedish Researchers

General Swedish Population Age 70

Increased diabetes prevalence

No

144

3/14

Yes [Winquist, A. & Steenland, K., "Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Thyroid Disease in Community and Worker Cohorts," 25 (2) Epidemiology 255-64 (March 2014)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population//DuPont PFOA WV Workers

Increased thyroid disease

Yes

145

1/27/14

Yes [Innes, K., et al., "Inverse association of colorectal cancer prevalence to serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in a large Appalachian population," BMC Cancer (doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-45) (on-line 1/27/14)]

WVU

WV/OH Settlement Population

Decreased colorectal cancer

Yes

146

2/14

Yes [Taylor, K.W., et al., "Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)," 122 (2) Environ. Health Perspec. 145-50 (Feb. 2014)]

NIEHS

General U.S. Population

Decreased time to menopause

147

5/14

Yes [Darrow, L.A., et al., "PFOA and PFOS Serum Levels and Miscarriage Risk," 25 Epidem. _ (2014) (on-line ay 2014)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased miscarriage risk at highest exposure levels

No

148

5/14/14

Yes [Raleigh, K.K., et al., "Mortality and cancer incidence in ammonium perfluorooctanoate production workers," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102109) (on-line May 14, 2014)]

3M

3M Minnesota Fluorochemical Workers

Increased bladder cancer

Increased pancreatic cancer

149

5/14

Yes [Fu, Y., et al., "Associations between serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipid levels in a Chinese population," 106 Ecotoxicology & Environ. Safety 246-52 (2014)]

Chinese Researchers

General Chinese Population

Increased total cholesterol (TC)

Increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC)

150

6/6/14

Yes [Humblet, O., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12-19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999-2008)," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606) (on-line June 6, 2014)]

Univ. Cal. Researchers

General U.S. Population (Children 12-19)

Increased asthma

151

8/15/14

Yes [Louis, G.M.B, et al., "Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307621) (on-line Aug. 15, 2014)]

Shriver Nat. Inst. Of Child Health & Human Devel.

General U.S. Population

Decreased sperm with coiled tails

152

9/26/14

Yes [Winquist, A. & Steenland, K., "Modeled PFOA Exposure and Coronary Artery Disease, Hypertension, and High Cholesterol in Community and Worker Cohorts," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307943) (on-line Sept. 26, 2014)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population/DuPont PFOA WV Workers

Increased cholesterol

Yes

153

10/17/14

Yes [Galloway, T.S., et al., "PFOA and PFOS are associated with reduced expression of the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women," 120 Chemosphere 555-52 (2/15) (on-line 10/17/14)]

UK Researchers

General UK Population

Reduced parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women

154

12/4/14

Yes [Shrestha, S., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults," 75C Environ Int. 206-214 (Dec. 4, 2014)]

S.U.N.Y Albany

General New York State Population

Increased fT4 and T4 with age

155

12/10/14

Yes [de Cock, M., et al., "Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in relation to thyroid hormone levels in infants - a Dutch prospective cohort study," 13(1) Environ. Health 106 (Dec. 10, 2014)]

Dutch Researchers

General Danish Population

Increased T4 in girls at high exposure

156

12/16/14

Yes [Donauer, S., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Infant Neurobehavior," J. Pediatr. (doi:10.1016/j.peds.2014.11.021) (on-line Dec. 16, 2014)]

Univ. Cincinnati

General U.S. Population

Increased hypotonic categorization in infants

157

12/19/14

Yes [Liew, Z., et al., "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested case-Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort," Environ. Health Perspec. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408412) (on-line Dec. 19, 2014)]

Univ. California (L.A.)

General Danish Population

[no increased risk of ADHD or autism]

158

1/19/15

Yes [Steenland, K., Zhao, L., & Winquist, A., "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)," Occup. Environ. Med. (doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102364) (on-line Jan. 19, 2015)]

C8 Science Panel

DuPont PFOA WV Workers

Increased ulcerative colitis

Increased rheumatoid arthritis

Increased prostate cancer

Increased thyroid disease (males)

Increased non-hepatitis liver diease

Increased type 2 diabetes

159

1/29/15

Yes [Zeng, X.W., et al., "Association of polyfluoroalkyl chemical exposure with serum lipids in children," 512-513C Sci. Total Environ. 364-70 (Jan. 29, 20150]

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Children Aged 12-15)

Increased total cholesterol

Increased LDL

Increased triglycerides

Decreased HDL

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

160

3/26/15

Yes [Tsai, M.S., et al., "Association between perfluoroalkyl substances and reproductive hormones in adolescents and young adults," Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (doi: 10.1016/ijheh.2015.03.008) (on-line March 26, 2015)]

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwanese Population (Aged 12-30)

Decreased SHBG

Yes

161

4/7/15

Yes [Jensen, T.K, et al., "Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish pregnant Women," PLoS ONE (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123496) (on-line April 7, 2015)]

Danish Researchers

General Danish Population (Pregnant Women)

[No association between PFOA and miscarriage]

162

5/23/15

Yes [Maisonet, M., et al., "Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipids at ages 7 and 15 in females," 82 Environ. Int'l 49-60 (May 23, 2015)]

East Tennessee State Univ./U.K Researchers

General U.K. Population (Females)

Prenatal Exposure may effect later life lipid levels in females

163

6/2/15

Yes [Maisonet, M., et al., "Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 years of Age in female ALSPAC Study Participants," Environ. Health Persp. () (on-line June 2, 2015)]

East Tenn. State/Other Researchers

General U.K. Population (Children 15 Years)

Increased testosterone levels following prenatal exposures

164

6/9/15

Yes [Khalil, N., et al., "Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009-2010," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.dooi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307909) (on-line June 9, 2015)]

Ohio Researchers

General U.S. Population

Increased osteoporosis in women

165

6/26/15

Yes [Lenters, V., et al., "Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression," Environ. Health Persp. (on-line June 26, 2015)]

General Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine Populations (Infants)

Decreased birth weight

166

10/13/15

Yes [Goudarzi, H., et al., "Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and neurodevelopment in early infancy: The Hokkaido Study," 541 Sci. Total Environ. 1002-1010 (Oct. 13, 2015)]

General Population (Infants at 6 and 18 months)

Decreased neurodevelopment in female infants at 6 months

167

10/30/15

Yes [Webster, G. M., et al., "Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007-2008)," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409589) (on-line Oct. 30, 2015)]

Canadian Researchers

General U.S. Population

Thyroid disruption in sensitive subpopulation of adults with high TPOAb and low iodine status

168

11/11/15

Yes [Braun, J. M., et al., "Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 years of Age: The HOME Study," Obesity J. (doi:10.1002/oby.21258) (on-line Nov. 11, 2015)]

Brown Univ.

General U.S. Population (Children in Ohio and Kentucky)

Increased adiposity at age 8 and more rapid increase in BMI between ages 2-8

169

1/20/16

Yes [Dhingra, R., et al., "Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and natural menopause: A longitudinal study in a community cohort," 146 Environ. Res. 323-330 (Jan. 20, 2016)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

[No association with earlier age at menopause]

170

1/28/16

Yes [Vuong, A.M., et al., "Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children," Environ. Res. (doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.01.008) (on-line Jan. 28, 2016)]

Univ. of Cincinnati

General Cincinnati, Ohio Population (Mother-child pairs)

[No association with executive function deficits in school-age children]

171

3/10/16

Yes [Qin, X.D., et al., "Positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances with uric acid and hyperuricemia in children from Taiwan," J. Env. Pol. (doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.050) (on-line March 10, 2016)]

Taiwanese Researchers

General Taiwan Population (Children Aged 12-15 Years)

Increased serum uric acid levels in boys

172

3/15/16

Yes [Darrow, L.A., et al., "Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community," Environ. Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510391) (on-line March 15, 2016)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population

Increased ALT

Decreased bilirubin

173

8/16

Yes [Lopez-Espinosa, M.J., et al., "Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6-9 Years of Age: A Cross Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project," 124 (8) Environ. Health Persp. 1269-1275 (Aug. 2016)]

C8 Science Panel

WV/OH Settlement Population (6-9 Years Old)

Decreased testosterone in boys

174

8/9/16

Yes [Grandjean, P., et al., "Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds," Environ Health Persp. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP275) (on-line Aug. 9, 2016)]

Harvard Univ.

General Faroe Islands Population (Ages 7, 13)

Decreased antibody response